Weaknesses without Software Fault Patterns

A view in the Common Weakness Enumeration published by The MITRE Corporation.


Objective

Views in the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) represent one perspective with which to consider a set of weaknesses.

CWE identifiers in this view are weaknesses that do not have associated Software Fault Patterns (SFPs), as covered by the CWE-888 view. As such, they represent gaps in coverage by the current software fault pattern model.

Weaknesses

Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data

The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.

Access Control Check Implemented After Asset is Accessed

A product's hardware-based access control check occurs after the asset has been accessed.

Access of Memory Location After End of Buffer

The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location after the end of the buffer.

Access of Memory Location Before Start of Buffer

The software reads or writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.

Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion')

The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompa...

Access of Uninitialized Pointer

The program accesses or uses a pointer that has not been initialized.

Addition of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling

The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be...

Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation

The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is n...

Application-Level Admin Tool with Inconsistent View of Underlying Operating System

The product provides an application for administrators to manage parts of the underlying operating system, but the application does not accurately identify all of the ...

Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range

The software's architecture contains too many - or too few - horizontal layers.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary

Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Improper Model Validation

The ASP.NET application does not use, or incorrectly uses, the model validation framework.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page

An ASP .NET application must enable custom error pages in order to prevent attackers from mining information from the framework's built-in responses.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File

Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attac...

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation

Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.

Assumed-Immutable Data is Stored in Writable Memory

Immutable data, such as a first-stage bootloader, device identifiers, and "write-once" configuration settings are stored in writable memory that can be re-programmed o...

Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)

Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.

Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name

The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all...

Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data

The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.

Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay

A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it ...

Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness

The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.

Authentication Bypass by Spoofing

This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.

Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel

A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.

Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created

The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.

Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key

The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.

Automated Recognition Mechanism with Inadequate Detection or Handling of Adversarial Input Perturbations

The product uses an automated mechanism such as machine learning to recognize complex data inputs (e.g. image or audio) as a particular concept or category, but it doe...

Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment

A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.

Binding to an Unrestricted IP Address

The product assigns the address 0.0.0.0 for a database server, a cloud service/instance, or any computing resource that communicates remotely.

Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer

The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds o...

Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value

The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds...

Callable with Insufficient Behavioral Summary

The code contains a function or method whose signature and/or associated inline documentation does not sufficiently describe the callable's inputs, outputs, ...

Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint

The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a...

Class Instance Self Destruction Control Element

The code contains a class instance that calls the method or function to delete or destroy itself.

Class with Excessive Number of Child Classes

A class contains an unnecessarily large number of children.

Class with Excessively Deep Inheritance

A class has an inheritance level that is too high, i.e., it has a large number of parent classes.

Class with Virtual Method without a Virtual Destructor

A class contains a virtual method, but the method does not have an associated virtual destructor.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.

Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security

The software is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.

Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value

The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.

Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory

A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web se...

Comparison Logic is Vulnerable to Power Side-Channel Attacks

A device's real time power consumption may be monitored during security token evaluation and the information gleaned may be used to determine the value of the referenc...

Comparison of Incompatible Types

The software performs a comparison between two entities, but the entities are of different, incompatible types that cannot be guaranteed to provide correct results whe...

Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents

The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.

Comparison Using Wrong Factors

The code performs a comparison between two entities, but the comparison examines the wrong factors or characteristics of the entities, which can lead to incorrect resu...

Compilation with Insufficient Warnings or Errors

The code is compiled without sufficient warnings enabled, which may prevent the detection of subtle bugs or quality issues.

Compiler Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code

The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the compiler optimizes the program such that the mechanism is removed or modified.

Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')

The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a ...

Context Switching Race Condition

A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker...

Covert Channel

A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.

Covert Storage Channel

A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from t...

Covert Timing Channel

Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system beha...

CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations

The CPU is not configured to provide hardware support for exclusivity of write and execute operations on memory. This allows an attacker to execute data from all of me...

Creation of Class Instance within a Static Code Block

A static code block creates an instance of a class.

Creation of Emergent Resource

The product manages resources or behaves in a way that indirectly creates a new, distinct resource that can be used by attackers in violation of the intended policy.

Creation of Immutable Text Using String Concatenation

The software creates an immutable text string using string concatenation operations.

Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions

The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.

Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions

Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the...

Cryptographic Operations are run Before Supporting Units are Ready

Performing cryptographic operations without ensuring that the supporting inputs are ready to supply valid data may compromise the cryptographic result.

Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations

The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked w...

Data Access from Outside Expected Data Manager Component

The software is intended to manage data access through a particular data manager component such as a relational or non-SQL database, but it contains code that performs...

Data Access Operations Outside of Expected Data Manager Component

The software uses a dedicated, central data manager component as required by design, but it contains code that performs data-access operations that do not use this dat...

Data Element Aggregating an Excessively Large Number of Non-Primitive Elements

The software uses a data element that has an excessively large number of sub-elements with non-primitive data types such as structures or aggregated objects.

Data Element containing Pointer Item without Proper Copy Control Element

The code contains a data element with a pointer that does not have an associated copy or constructor method.

Data Resource Access without Use of Connection Pooling

The software accesses a data resource through a database without using a connection pooling capability.

Deadlock

The software contains multiple threads or executable segments that are waiting for each other to release a necessary lock, resulting in deadlock.

Debug Messages Revealing Unnecessary Information

The product fails to adequately prevent the revealing of unnecessary and potentially sensitive system information within debugging messages.

Declaration of Variable with Unnecessarily Wide Scope

The source code declares a variable in one scope, but the variable is only used within a narrower scope.

Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Deployment of Wrong Handler

The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.

Device Unlock Credential Sharing

The credentials necessary for unlocking a device are shared across multiple parties and may expose sensitive information.

DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase

The product enables a Direct Memory Access (DMA) capable device before the security configuration settings are established, which allows an attacker to extract data fr...

Double Decoding of the Same Data

The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.

Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist)

Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.

Duplicate Operations on Resource

The product performs the same operation on a resource two or more times, when the operation should only be applied once.

Dynamic Variable Evaluation

In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary vari...

Embedded Malicious Code

The application contains code that appears to be malicious in nature.

Empty Code Block

The source code contains a block that does not contain any code, i.e., the block is empty.

Empty Exception Block

An invokable code block contains an exception handling block that does not contain any code, i.e. is empty.

Empty Password in Configuration File

Using an empty string as a password is insecure.

Encoding Error

The software does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.

Excessive Attack Surface

The product has an attack surface whose quantitative measurement exceeds a desirable maximum.

Excessive Code Complexity

The code is too complex, as calculated using a well-defined, quantitative measure.

Excessive Data Query Operations in a Large Data Table

The software performs a data query with a large number of joins and sub-queries on a large data table.

Excessive Execution of Sequential Searches of Data Resource

The software contains a data query against an SQL table or view that is configured in a way that does not utilize an index and may cause sequential searches ...

Excessive Halstead Complexity

The code is structured in a way that a Halstead complexity measure exceeds a desirable maximum.

Excessive Index Range Scan for a Data Resource

The software contains an index range scan for a large data table, but the scan can cover a large number of rows.

Excessive Iteration

The software performs an iteration or loop without sufficiently limiting the number of times that the loop is executed.

Excessive McCabe Cyclomatic Complexity

The code contains McCabe cyclomatic complexity that exceeds a desirable maximum.

Excessive Number of Inefficient Server-Side Data Accesses

The software performs too many data queries without using efficient data processing functionality such as stored procedures.

Excessive Platform Resource Consumption within a Loop

The software has a loop body or loop condition that contains a control element that directly or indirectly consumes platform resources, e.g. messaging, sessions, ...

Excessive Reliance on Global Variables

The code is structured in a way that relies too much on using or setting global variables throughout various points in the code, instead of preserving the as...

Excessive Use of Hard-Coded Literals in Initialization

The software initializes a data element using a hard-coded literal that is not a simple integer or static constant element.

Excessive Use of Self-Modifying Code

The product uses too much self-modifying code.

Excessive Use of Unconditional Branching

The code uses too many unconditional branches (such as "goto").

Excessively Complex Data Representation

The software uses an unnecessarily complex internal representation for its data structures or interrelationships between those structures.

Excessively Deep Nesting

The code contains a callable or other code grouping in which the nesting / branching is too deep.

Execution After Redirect (EAR)

The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.

Execution with Unnecessary Privileges

The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of o...

Expected Behavior Violation

A feature, API, or function does not perform according to its specification.

Expired Pointer Dereference

The program dereferences a pointer that contains a location for memory that was previously valid, but is no longer valid.

Exposed Chip Debug and Test Interface With Insufficient or Missing Authorization

The chip does not implement or does not correctly check whether users are authorized to access internal registers.

Exposed Dangerous Method or Function

The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous met...

Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control

The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.

Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method

An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. t...

Exposure of Access Control List Files to an Unauthorized Control Sphere

The product stores access control list files in a directory or other container that is accessible to actors outside of the intended control sphere.

Exposure of Backup File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere

A backup file is stored in a directory or archive that is made accessible to unauthorized actors.

Exposure of Core Dump File to an Unauthorized Control Sphere

The product generates a core dump file in a directory, archive, or other resource that is stored, transferred, or otherwise made accessible to unauthorized actors.

Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session

The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.

Exposure of Information Through Directory Listing

A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.

Exposure of Information Through Shell Error Message

A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions th...

Exposure of Private Personal Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product does not properly prevent a person's private, personal information from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the...

Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere

The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Due to Incompatible Policies

The product's intended functionality exposes information to certain actors in accordance with the developer's security policy, but this information is regarded as sens...

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Data Queries

When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Metadata

The product prevents direct access to a resource containing sensitive information, but it does not sufficiently limit access to metadata that is derived from the origi...

Exposure of Sensitive Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product exposes sensitive information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.

Exposure of Sensitive System Information Due to Uncleared Debug Information

The hardware does not fully clear security-sensitive values, such as keys and intermediate values in cryptographic operations, when debug mode is entered.

Exposure of Version-Control Repository to an Unauthorized Control Sphere

The product stores a CVS, git, or other repository in a directory, archive, or other resource that is stored, transferred, or otherwise made accessible to unauthorized...

Exposure of WSDL File Containing Sensitive Information

The Web services architecture may require exposing a Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how ...

External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter

The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.

External Influence of Sphere Definition

The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.

Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere

The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Externally-Generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The application performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated or controlled by the application, such as an...

Fabric-Address Map Allows Programming of Unwarranted Overlaps of Protected and Unprotected Ranges

The address map of the on-chip fabric has protected and unprotected regions overlapping, allowing an attacker to bypass access control to the overlapping portion of th...

Failure to Disable Reserved Bits

The reserved bits in a hardware design are not disabled prior to production. Typically, reserved bits are used for future capabilities and should not support any funct...

Failure to Handle Incomplete Element

The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.

Failure to Handle Missing Parameter

If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments c...

Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)

The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.

Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties

The product makes files or directories accessible to unauthorized actors, even though they should not be.

Firmware Not Updateable

A product's firmware cannot be updated or patched, leaving weaknesses present with no means of repair and the product vulnerable to attack.

Floating Point Comparison with Incorrect Operator

The code performs a comparison such as an equality test between two float (floating point) values, but it uses comparison operators that do not account...

Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the arguments in an incorrect order, leading to resultant weaknesses.

Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the wrong variable or reference as one of the arguments, which may lead to undefined beh...

Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments

The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.

Generation of Incorrect Security Tokens

The product implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Se...

Generation of Predictable Numbers or Identifiers

The product uses a scheme that generates numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required.

Generation of Weak Initialization Vector (IV)

The product uses a cryptographic primitive that uses an Initialization Vector (IV), but the product does not generate IVs that are sufficiently unpredictable or ...

Guessable CAPTCHA

The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.

Hardware Allows Activation of Test or Debug Logic at Runtime

During runtime, the hardware allows for test or debug logic (feature) to be activated, which allows for changing the state of the hardware. This feature can alter the ...

Hardware Child Block Incorrectly Connected to Parent System

Signals between a hardware IP and the parent system design are incorrectly connected causing security risks.

Hardware Features Enable Physical Attacks from Software

Software-controllable device functionality such as power and clock management permits unauthorized modification of memory or register bits.

Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks

System configuration protection may be bypassed during debug mode.

Hardware Logic Contains Race Conditions

A race condition in the hardware logic results in undermining security guarantees of the system.

Hardware Logic with Insecure De-Synchronization between Control and Data Channels

The hardware logic for error handling and security checks can incorrectly forward data before the security check is complete.

Hidden Functionality

The software contains functionality that is not documented, not part of the specification, and not accessible through an interface or command sequence that is obvious ...

Improper Access Control

The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.

Improper Access Control Applied to Mirrored or Aliased Memory Regions

Aliased or mirrored memory regions in hardware designs may have inconsistent read/write permissions enforced by the hardware. A possible result is that an untrusted ag...

Improper Access to Sensitive Information Using Debug and Test Interfaces

The product's physical debug and test interface protection does not block untrusted agents, resulting in unauthorized access to and potentially control of sensitive as...

Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code

The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.

Improper Adherence to Coding Standards

The software does not follow certain coding rules for development, which can lead to resultant weaknesses or increase the severity of the associated vulnerabilities.

Improper Authentication

When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.

Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme

The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.

Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information

The product creates a search index of private or sensitive documents, but it does not properly limit index access to actors who are authorized to see the original info...

Improper Certificate Validation

The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.

Improper Check for Certificate Revocation

The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.

Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions

The software does not check or incorrectly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the so...

Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions

The software does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the software.

Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception

The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.

Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime

The software does not maintain or incorrectly maintains control over a resource throughout its lifetime of creation, use, and release.

Improper Control of Document Type Definition

The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, ...

Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.

Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or ex...

Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion')

The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or...

Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutraliz...

Improper Control of Interaction Frequency

The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.

Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output

The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a r...

Improper Enforcement of a Single, Unique Action

The software requires that an actor should only be able to perform an action once, or to have only one unique action, but the software does not enforce or improperly e...

Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow

The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in...

Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel

The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was n...

Improper Export of Android Application Components

The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the dat...

Improper Filtering of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.

Improper Finite State Machines (FSMs) in Hardware Logic

Faulty finite state machines (FSMs) in the hardware logic allow an attacker to put the system in an undefined state, to cause a denial of service (DoS) or gain privile...

Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust

The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any reso...

Improper Following of Specification by Caller

The software does not follow or incorrectly follows the specifications as required by the implementation language, environment, framework, protocol, or platform.

Improper Handling of Additional Special Element

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is provided.

Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding

The software does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.

Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path

The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.

Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity

The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.

Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.

Improper Handling of Extra Parameters

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.

Improper Handling of Extra Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.

Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associa...

Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.

Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.

Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements

The software does not properly handle input in which an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.

Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG

True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.

Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency

The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the a...

Improper Handling of Missing Special Element

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.

Improper Handling of Missing Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blan...

Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding

The software does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.

Improper Handling of Overlap Between Protected Memory Ranges

The product allows address regions to overlap, which can result in the bypassing of intended memory protection.

Improper Handling of Parameters

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.

Improper Handling of Single Event Upsets

The hardware logic does not effectively handle when single-event upsets (SEUs) occur.

Improper Handling of Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles inputs that are related to complex structures.

Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.

Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.

Improper Handling of Undefined Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.

Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).

Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding

The software does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.

Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding)

The software does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.

Improper Handling of Values

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.

Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream

The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).

Improper Hardware Lock Protection for Security Sensitive Controls

The product implements a register lock bit protection feature that permits security sensitive controls to modify the protected configuration.

Improper Implementation of Lock Protection Registers

The product incorrectly implements register lock bit protection features such that protected controls can be programmed even after the lock has been set.

Improper Interaction Between Multiple Correctly-Behaving Entities

An interaction error occurs when two entities have correct behavior when running independently of each other, but when they are integrated as components in a larger sy...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources in Network On Chip

The product does not isolate or incorrectly isolates its on-chip-fabric and internal resources such that they are shared between trusted and untrusted agents, creating...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources on System-on-a-Chip (SoC)

The product does not properly isolate shared resources between trusted and untrusted agents.

Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition

Register lock bit protection disables changes to system configuration once the bit is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power...

Improper Management of Sensitive Trace Data

Trace data collected from several sources on the System-on-Chip (SoC) is stored in unprotected locations or transported to untrusted ag...

Improper Neutralization

The product does not ensure or incorrectly ensures that structured messages or data are well-formed and that certain security properties are met before being read from...

Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection')

The software constructs a string for a command to executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, ...

Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable...

Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements

The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.

Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File

The software saves user-provided information into a Comma-Separated Value (CSV) file, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could...

Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page

The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) ...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic

The application generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes speci...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, ...

Improper Ownership Management

The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.

Improper Physical Access Control

The product is to be designed with access restricted to certain information, but it does not sufficiently protect against an unauthorized actor's ability to access the...

Improper Preservation of Consistency Between Independent Representations of Shared State

The product has or supports multiple distributed components or sub-systems that are each required to keep their own local copy of shared data - such as state or cache ...

Improper Preservation of Permissions

The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrict...

Improper Privilege Management

The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Improper Protection against Electromagnetic Fault Injection (EM-FI)

The device is susceptible to electromagnetic fault injection attacks, causing device internal information to be compromised or security mechanisms to be bypassed.

Improper Protection Against Physical Side Channels

The product is missing protections or implements insufficient protections against information leakage through physical channels such as power consumption, electromagne...

Improper Protection for Out of Bounds Signal Level Alerts

Untrusted agents can disable alerts about signal conditions exceeding limits or the response mechanism that handles such alerts.

Improper Protections Against Hardware Overheating

A hardware device is missing or has inadequate protection features to prevent overheating.

Improper Removal of Sensitive Information Before Storage or Transfer

The product stores, transfers, or shares a resource that contains sensitive information, but it does not properly remove that information before the product makes the ...

Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence

The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file an...

Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints

The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicat...

Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer

The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.

Improper Restriction of Power Consumption

The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the ...

Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion')

The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursiv...

Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames

The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusio...

Improper Restriction of Security Token Assignment

The System-On-A-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. ...

Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields

The hardware design control register "sticky bits" or write-once bit fields are improperly implemented, such that they can be reprogrammed by software.

Improper Scrubbing of Sensitive Data from Decommissioned Device

The product does not properly provide a capability for the product administrator to remove sensitive data at the time the product is decommissioned. A scrubbing capab...

Improper Setting of Bus Controlling Capability in Fabric End-point

The bus controller enables bits in the fabric end-point to allow responder devices to control transactions on the fabric.

Improper Translation of Security Attributes by Fabric Bridge

The bridge incorrectly translates security attributes from either trusted to untrusted or from untrusted to trusted when converting from one fabric protocol to another.

Improper Update of Reference Count

The software uses a reference count to manage a resource, but it does not update or incorrectly updates the reference count.

Improper Use of Validation Framework

The application does not use, or incorrectly uses, an input validation framework that is provided by the source language or an independent library.

Improper Validation of Array Index

The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index ref...

Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration

A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.

Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch

The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.

Improper Validation of Consistency within Input

The product receives a complex input with multiple elements or fields that must be consistent with each other, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that t...

Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value

The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been...

Improper Validation of Specified Index, Position, or Offset in Input

The product receives input that is expected to specify an index, position, or offset into an indexable resource such as a buffer or file, but it does not validate or i...

Improper Validation of Specified Quantity in Input

The product receives input that is expected to specify a quantity (such as size or length), but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the quantity has the...

Improper Validation of Specified Type of Input

The product receives input that is expected to be of a certain type, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input is actually of the expected type.

Improper Validation of Syntactic Correctness of Input

The product receives input that is expected to be well-formed - i.e., to comply with a certain syntax - but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the inpu...

Improper Validation of Unsafe Equivalence in Input

The product receives an input value that is used as a resource identifier or other type of reference, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input ...

Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature

The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.

Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver

The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.

Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel

The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is...

Improper Write Handling in Limited-write Non-Volatile Memories

The product does not implement or incorrectly implements wear leveling operations in limited-write non-volatile memories.

Improper Zeroization of Hardware Register

The hardware product does not properly clear sensitive information from built-in registers when the user of the hardware block changes.

Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, bu...

Improperly Controlled Modification of Object Prototype Attributes ('Prototype Pollution')

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies attributes that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control m...

Improperly Controlled Sequential Memory Allocation

The product manages a group of objects or resources and performs a separate memory allocation for each object, but it does not properly limit the total amount of memor...

Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard

The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or tec...

Improperly Preserved Integrity of Hardware Configuration State During a Power Save/Restore Operation

The product performs a power save/restore operation, but it does not ensure that the integrity of the configuration state is maintained and/or ...

Inaccurate Comments

The source code contains comments that do not accurately describe or explain aspects of the portion of the code with which the comment is associated.

Inadequate Encryption Strength

The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.

Inappropriate Comment Style

The source code uses comment styles or formats that are inconsistent or do not follow expected standards for the product.

Inappropriate Encoding for Output Context

The software uses or specifies an encoding when generating output to a downstream component, but the specified encoding is not the same as the encoding that is expecte...

Inappropriate Source Code Style or Formatting

The source code does not follow desired style or formatting for indentation, white space, comments, etc.

Inappropriate Whitespace Style

The source code contains whitespace that is inconsistent across the code or does not follow expected standards for the product.

Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere

The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in an Include File

If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code

Source code on a web server or repository often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code Comments

While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links whic...

Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits

The device includes chicken bits or undocumented features that can create entry points for unauthorized actors.

Inclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source

The software includes web functionality (such as a web widget) from another domain, which causes it to operate within the domain of the software, potentially granting ...

Incomplete Comparison with Missing Factors

The software performs a comparison between entities that must consider multiple factors or characteristics of each entity, but the comparison does not include one or m...

Incomplete Denylist to Cross-Site Scripting

The product uses a denylist-based protection mechanism to defend against XSS attacks, but the denylist is incomplete, allowing XSS variants to succeed.

Incomplete Design Documentation

The product's design documentation does not adequately describe control flow, data flow, system initialization, relationships between tasks, components, rati...

Incomplete Documentation

The documentation, whether on paper or in electronic form, does not contain descriptions of all the relevant elements of the product, such as its usage, stru...

Incomplete Documentation of Program Execution

The document does not fully define all mechanisms that are used to control or influence how product-specific programs are executed.

Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.

Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream compo...

Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.

Incomplete I/O Documentation

The product's documentation does not adequately define inputs, outputs, or system/software interfaces.

Incomplete Internal State Distinction

The software does not properly determine which state it is in, causing it to assume it is in state X when in fact it is in state Y, causing it to perform incorrect ope...

Incomplete List of Disallowed Inputs

The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are not allowed by policy or otherwise require other actio...

Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features

A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, poten...

Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design

The implementation of the product is not consistent with the design as described within the relevant documentation.

Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling')

When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, the...

Inconsistent Naming Conventions for Identifiers

The product's code, documentation, or other artifacts do not consistently use the same naming conventions for variables, callables, groups of related callabl...

Incorrect Authorization

The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows...

Incorrect Behavior Order

The product performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization

If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification

The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation

The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs t...

Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize

The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter

The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.

Incorrect Block Delimitation

The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.

Incorrect Calculation

The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.

Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size

The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.

Incorrect Chaining or Granularity of Debug Components

The product's debug components contain incorrect chaining or granularity of debug components.

Incorrect Comparison

The software compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is incorrect, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.

Incorrect Comparison Logic Granularity

The product's comparison logic is performed over a series of steps rather than across the entire string in one operation. If there is a comparison logic failure on one...

Incorrect Control Flow Scoping

The software does not properly return control flow to the proper location after it has completed a task or detected an unusual condition.

Incorrect Conversion of Security Identifiers

The product implements a conversion mechanism to map certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. However, if the conversion is incorrectly implemented, un...

Incorrect Decoding of Security Identifiers

The product implements a decoding mechanism to decode certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. If the decoding is implemented incorrectly, then untrust...

Incorrect Default Permissions

During installation, installed file permissions are set to allow anyone to modify those files.

Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions

While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.

Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm

The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.

Incorrect Ownership Assignment

The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.

Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource

The product specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.

Incorrect Privilege Assignment

A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality

The code does not function according to its published specifications, potentially leading to incorrect usage.

Incorrect Register Defaults or Module Parameters

Hardware description language code incorrectly defines register defaults or hardware IP parameters to insecure values.

Incorrect Regular Expression

The software specifies a regular expression in a way that causes data to be improperly matched or compared.

Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres

The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides ...

Incorrect Selection of Fuse Values

The logic level used to set a system to a secure state relies on a fuse being unblown. An attacker can set the system to an insecure state merely by blowing the fuse.

Incorrect Synchronization

The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner, but it does not correctly synchronize access to the resource.

Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) that does not correctly manage seeds.

Incorrect Use of Autoboxing and Unboxing for Performance Critical Operations

The code uses boxed primitives, which may introduce inefficiencies into performance-critical operations.

Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs

The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing t...

Incorrect User Management

The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.

Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel

The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.

Inefficient Algorithmic Complexity

An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typ...

Inefficient CPU Computation

The program performs CPU computations using algorithms that are not as efficient as they could be for the needs of the developer, i.e., the computati...

Inefficient Regular Expression Complexity

The product uses a regular expression with an inefficient, possibly exponential worst-case computational complexity that consumes excessive CPU cycles.

Information Loss or Omission

The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.

Initialization with Hard-Coded Network Resource Configuration Data

The software initializes data using hard-coded values that act as network resource identifiers.

Insecure Automated Optimizations

The product uses a mechanism that automatically optimizes code, e.g. to improve a characteristic such as performance, but the optimizations can have an unintended side...

Insecure Default Initialization of Resource

The software initializes or sets a resource with a default that is intended to be changed by the administrator, but the default is not secure.

Insecure Default Variable Initialization

The software, by default, initializes an internal variable with an insecure or less secure value than is possible.

Insecure Inherited Permissions

A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.

Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions

A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.

Insecure Security Identifier Mechanism

The System-on-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entit...

Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information

The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.

Insecure Temporary File

Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.

Insertion of Sensitive Information into Externally-Accessible File or Directory

The product places sensitive information into files or directories that are accessible to actors who are allowed to have access to the files, but not to the sensitive ...

Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Sent Data

The code transmits data to another actor, but a portion of the data includes sensitive information that should not be accessible to that actor.

Insufficient Adherence to Expected Conventions

The product's architecture, source code, design, documentation, or other artifact does not follow required conventions.

Insufficient Compartmentalization

The product does not sufficiently compartmentalize functionality or processes that require different privilege levels, rights, or permissions.

Insufficient Control Flow Management

The code does not sufficiently manage its control flow during execution, creating conditions in which the control flow can be modified in unexpected ways.

Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification)

The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should ...

Insufficient Documentation of Error Handling Techniques

The documentation does not sufficiently describe the techniques that are used for error handling, exception processing, or similar mechanisms.

Insufficient Encapsulation

The software does not sufficiently hide the internal representation and implementation details of data or methods, which might allow external components or modules to ...

Insufficient Encapsulation of Machine-Dependent Functionality

The product or code uses machine-dependent functionality, but it does not sufficiently encapsulate or isolate this functionality from the rest of the code.

Insufficient Entropy

The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.

Insufficient Entropy in PRNG

The lack of entropy available for, or used by, a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) can be a stability and security threat.

Insufficient Granularity of Access Control

The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system fro...

Insufficient Granularity of Address Regions Protected by Register Locks

The product defines a large address region protected from modification by the same register lock control bit. This results in a conflict between the functional require...

Insufficient Isolation of Symbolic Constant Definitions

The source code uses symbolic constants, but it does not sufficiently place the definitions of these constants into a more centralized or isolated location.

Insufficient Isolation of System-Dependent Functions

The product or code does not isolate system-dependent functionality into separate standalone modules.

Insufficient Logging

When a security-critical event occurs, the software either does not record the event or omits important details about the event when logging it.

Insufficient or Incomplete Data Removal within Hardware Component

The product's data removal process does not completely delete all data and potentially sensitive information within hardware components.

Insufficient Protection Against Instruction Skipping Via Fault Injection

The device is missing or incorrectly implements circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate CPU instruction skips that can be caused by...

Insufficient Protections on the Volatile Memory Containing Boot Code

The protections on the product's non-volatile memory containing boot code are insufficient to prevent the bypassing of secure boot or the execution of an untrusted, bo...

Insufficient Psychological Acceptability

The software has a protection mechanism that is too difficult or inconvenient to use, encouraging non-malicious users to disable or bypass the mechanism, whether by ac...

Insufficient Resource Pool

The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) ...

Insufficient Session Expiration

According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."

Insufficient Type Distinction

The software does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.

Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations

The user interface provides a warning to a user regarding dangerous or sensitive operations, but the warning is not noticeable enough to warrant attention.

Insufficient Use of Symbolic Constants

The source code uses literal constants that may need to change or evolve over time, instead of using symbolic constants.

Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity

The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.

Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User

The software displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or ide...

Insufficiently Protected Credentials

The product transmits or stores authentication credentials, but it uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.

Integer Coercion Error

Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.

Integer Overflow to Buffer Overflow

The product performs a calculation to determine how much memory to allocate, but an integer overflow can occur that causes less memory to be allocated than expected, l...

Interpretation Conflict

Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.

Invocation of a Control Element at an Unnecessarily Deep Horizontal Layer

The code at one architectural layer invokes code that resides at a deeper layer than the adjacent layer, i.e., the invocation skips at least one layer, and t...

Invokable Control Element in Multi-Thread Context with non-Final Static Storable or Member Element

The code contains a function or method that operates in a multi-threaded environment but owns an unsafe non-final static storable or member d...

Invokable Control Element with Excessive File or Data Access Operations

A function or method contains too many operations that utilize a data manager or file resource.

Invokable Control Element with Excessive Volume of Commented-out Code

A function, method, procedure, etc. contains an excessive amount of code that has been commented out within its body.

Invokable Control Element with Large Number of Outward Calls

The code contains callable control elements that contain an excessively large number of references to other application objects external to the conte...

Invokable Control Element with Signature Containing an Excessive Number of Parameters

The software contains a function, subroutine, or method whose signature has an unnecessarily large number of parameters/arguments.

Invokable Control Element with Variadic Parameters

A named-callable or method control element has a signature that supports a variable (variadic) number of parameters or arguments.

Irrelevant Code

The program contains code that is not essential for execution, i.e. makes no state changes and has no side effects that alter data or control flow, such th...

J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption

Information sent over a network can be compromised while in transit. An attacker may be able to read or modify the contents if the data are sent in plaintext or are we...

J2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length

The J2EE application is configured to use an insufficient session ID length.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page

The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File

The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods

If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.

Java Runtime Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.

Key Exchange without Entity Authentication

The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.

Lack of Administrator Control over Security

The product uses security features in a way that prevents the product's administrator from tailoring security settings to reflect the environment in which the product ...

Large Data Table with Excessive Number of Indices

The software uses a large data table that contains an excessively large number of indices.

Logging of Excessive Data

The software logs too much information, making log files hard to process and possibly hindering recovery efforts or forensic analysis after an attack.

Logic/Time Bomb

The software contains code that is designed to disrupt the legitimate operation of the software (or its environment) when a certain time passes, or when a certain logi...

Loop Condition Value Update within the Loop

The software uses a loop with a control flow condition based on a value that is updated within the body of the loop.

Loop with Unreachable Exit Condition ('Infinite Loop')

The program contains an iteration or loop with an exit condition that cannot be reached, i.e., an infinite loop.

Memory Allocation with Excessive Size Value

The product allocates memory based on an untrusted, large size value, but it does not ensure that the size is within expected limits, allowing arbitrary amounts of mem...

Method Containing Access of a Member Element from Another Class

A method for a class performs an operation that directly accesses a member element from another class.

Mirrored Regions with Different Values

The product's architecture mirrors regions without ensuring that their contents always stay in sync.

Misinterpretation of Input

The software misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.

Missing Ability to Patch ROM Code

Missing an ability to patch ROM code may leave a System or System-on-Chip (SoC) in a vulnerable state.

Missing Authorization

The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.

Missing Critical Step in Authentication

The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.

Missing Cryptographic Step

The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by the algorithm.

Missing Custom Error Page

The software does not return custom error pages to the user, possibly exposing sensitive information.

Missing Documentation for Design

The product does not have documentation that represents how it is designed.

Missing Immutable Root of Trust in Hardware

A missing immutable root of trust in the hardware results in the ability to bypass secure boot or execute untrusted or adversarial boot code.

Missing Initialization of Resource

The software does not initialize a critical resource.

Missing or Improperly Implemented Protection Against Voltage and Clock Glitches

The device does not contain or contains improperly implemented circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate voltage and clock glitches and protect sensitive information...

Missing Password Field Masking

The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.

Missing Protection Against Hardware Reverse Engineering Using Integrated Circuit (IC) Imaging Techniques

Information stored in hardware may be recovered by an attacker with the capability to capture and analyze images of the integrated circuit using techniques such as sca...

Missing Protection for Mirrored Regions in On-Chip Fabric Firewall

The firewall in an on-chip fabric protects the main addressed region, but it does not protect any mirrored memory or memory-mapped-IO (MMIO) regions.

Missing Protection Mechanism for Alternate Hardware Interface

The lack of protections on alternate paths to access control-protected assets (such as unprotected shadow registers and other external ...

Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource

The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.

Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle

The software does not properly maintain references to a file descriptor or handle, which prevents that file descriptor/handle from being reclaimed.

Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime

The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.

Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime

The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.

Missing Security Checks in Fabric Bridge

A bridge that is connected to a fabric without security features forwards transactions to the slave without checking the privilege level of the master. Similarly, it ...

Missing Security Identifier

The product implements a security identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. A transact...

Missing Serialization Control Element

The software contains a serializable data element that does not have an associated serialization method.

Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data

The software relies on one source of data, preventing the ability to detect if an adversary has compromised a data source.

Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism

The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.

Missing Support for Integrity Check

The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.

Missing Support for Security Features in On-chip Fabrics or Buses

On-chip fabrics or buses either do not support or are not configured to support privilege separation or other security features, such as access control.

Missing Synchronization

The software utilizes a shared resource in a concurrent manner but does not attempt to synchronize access to the resource.

Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate

The software uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary se...

Missing Write Protection for Parametric Data Values

The device does not write-protect the parametric data values for sensors that scale the sensor value, allowing untrusted software to manipulate the apparent result and...

Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)

The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.

Modules with Circular Dependencies

The software contains modules in which one module has references that cycle back to itself, i.e., there are circular dependencies.

Multiple Inheritance from Concrete Classes

The software contains a class with inheritance from more than one concrete class.

Multiple Interpretations of UI Input

The UI has multiple interpretations of user input but does not prompt the user when it selects the less secure interpretation.

Mutable Attestation or Measurement Reporting Data

The register contents used for attestation or measurement reporting data to verify boot flow are modifiable by an adversary.

.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation

Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms ...

Non-exit on Failed Initialization

The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format ...

Non-Replicating Malicious Code

Non-replicating malicious code only resides on the target system or software that is attacked; it does not attempt to spread to other systems.

Non-SQL Invokable Control Element with Excessive Number of Data Resource Accesses

The software contains a client with a function or method that contains a large number of data accesses/queries that are sent through a data manager, i.e., does not use...

Non-Transparent Sharing of Microarchitectural Resources

Hardware structures shared across execution contexts (e.g., caches and branch predictors) can violate the expected architecture isolation between contexts.

Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open')

When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, su...

Not Using an Unpredictable IV with CBC Mode

Not using an unpredictable initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary attacks when they are enc...

Not Using Password Aging

If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.

Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte)

The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.

Numeric Range Comparison Without Minimum Check

The program checks a value to ensure that it is less than or equal to a maximum, but it does not also verify that the value is greater than or equal to the minimum.

Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined

The software does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.

Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name

The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy

The product's behaviors indicate important differences that may be observed by unauthorized actors in a way that reveals (1) its internal state or decision process, or...

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy With Equivalent Products

The product operates in an environment in which its existence or specific identity should not be known, but it behaves differently than other products with equivalent ...

Observable Discrepancy

The product behaves differently or sends different responses under different circumstances in a way that is observable to an unauthorized actor, which exposes security...

Observable Internal Behavioral Discrepancy

The product performs multiple behaviors that are combined to produce a single result, but the individual behaviors are observable separately in a way that allows attac...

Observable Response Discrepancy

The product provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that reveals internal state information to an unauthorized actor outside of the intended control...

Observable Timing Discrepancy

Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information a...

Obsolete Feature in UI

A UI function is obsolete and the product does not warn the user.

Off-by-one Error

A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.

Omission of Security-relevant Information

The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.

Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.

Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that ...

Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remainin...

Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; ...

Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime

The software performs an operation on a resource at the wrong phase of the resource's lifecycle, which can lead to unexpected behaviors.

Operator Precedence Logic Error

The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.

Origin Validation Error

The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.

Out-of-bounds Read

The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.

Out-of-bounds Write

The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.

Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism

The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny ser...

Overly Restrictive Regular Expression

A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.

Parent Class with a Virtual Destructor and a Child Class without a Virtual Destructor

A parent class has a virtual destructor method, but the parent has a child class that does not have a virtual destructor.

Parent Class with References to Child Class

The code has a parent class that contains references to a child class, its methods, or its members.

Parent Class without Virtual Destructor Method

A parent class contains one or more child classes, but the parent class does not have a virtual destructor method.

Partial String Comparison

The software performs a comparison that only examines a portion of a factor before determining whether there is a match, such as a substring, leading to resultant weak...

Password Aging with Long Expiration

Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.

Password in Configuration File

The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.

Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy

The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to...

Permissive Cross-domain Policy with Untrusted Domains

The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.

Permissive List of Allowed Inputs

The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are explicitly allowed by policy because the inputs are as...

Permissive Regular Expression

The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.

Persistent Storable Data Element without Associated Comparison Control Element

The software uses a storable data element that does not have all of the associated functions or methods that are necessary to support comparison.

PHP External Variable Modification

A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the appli...

Placement of User into Incorrect Group

The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.

Policy Privileges are not Assigned Consistently Between Control and Data Agents

The product's hardware-enforced access control for a particular resource improperly accounts for privilege discrepancies between control and write policies.

Policy Uses Obsolete Encoding

The product uses an obsolete encoding mechanism to implement access controls.

Power-On of Untrusted Execution Core Before Enabling Fabric Access Control

The product enables components that contain untrusted firmware before memory and fabric access controls have been enabled.

Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values

An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.

Predictable from Observable State

A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.

Predictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) is initialized from a predictable seed, such as the process ID or system time.

Predictable Value Range from Previous Values

The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next va...

Premature Release of Resource During Expected Lifetime

The program releases a resource that is still intended to be used by the program itself or another actor.

Privilege Chaining

Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that...

Privilege Context Switching Error

The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.

Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions

A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.

Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors

The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.

Process Control

Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) o...

Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code

The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the processor optimizes the execution of the program such that the mechanism is re...

Product Released in Non-Release Configuration

The product released to market is released in pre-production or manufacturing configuration.

Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions

The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into...

Protection Mechanism Failure

The product does not use or incorrectly uses a protection mechanism that provides sufficient defense against directed attacks against the product.

Public Key Re-Use for Signing both Debug and Production Code

The same public key is used for signing both debug and production code.

Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel

The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.

Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes

A write-once register in hardware design is programmable by an untrusted software component earlier than the trusted software component, resulting in a race condition ...

Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol

Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.

Register Interface Allows Software Access to Sensitive Data or Security Settings

Memory-mapped registers provide access to hardware functionality from software and if not properly secured can result in loss of confidentiality and integrity.

Regular Expression without Anchors

The software uses a regular expression to perform neutralization, but the regular expression is not anchored and may allow malicious or malformed data to slip through.

Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision

A protection mechanism relies exclusively, or to a large extent, on the evaluation of a single condition or the integrity of a single object or entity in order to make...

Reliance on Component That is Not Updateable

The product contains a component that cannot be updated or patched in order to remove vulnerabilities or significant bugs.

Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associ...

Reliance on Data/Memory Layout

The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.

Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File

The software allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attack...

Reliance on IP Address for Authentication

The software uses an IP address for authentication.

Reliance on Machine-Dependent Data Representation

The code uses a data representation that relies on low-level data representation or constructs that may vary across different processors, physical machines, ...

Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking

The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if thos...

Reliance on Package-level Scope

Java packages are not inherently closed; therefore, relying on them for code security is not a good practice.

Reliance on Runtime Component in Generated Code

The product uses automatically-generated code that cannot be executed without a specific runtime support component.

Reliance on Security Through Obscurity

The software uses a protection mechanism whose strength depends heavily on its obscurity, such that knowledge of its algorithms or key data is sufficient to defeat the...

Reliance on Undefined, Unspecified, or Implementation-Defined Behavior

The software uses an API function, data structure, or other entity in a way that relies on properties that are not always guaranteed to hold for that entity.

Reliance on Untrusted Inputs in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of an input, but the input can be modified by an untrusted actor in a way that bypas...

Remanent Data Readable after Memory Erase

Confidential information stored in memory circuits is readable or recoverable after being cleared or erased.

Replicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm)

Replicating malicious code, including viruses and worms, will attempt to attack other systems once it has successfully compromised the target system or software.

Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption

Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.

Reversible One-Way Hash

The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, m...

Runtime Resource Management Control Element in a Component Built to Run on Application Servers

The application uses deployed components from application servers, but it also uses low-level functions/methods for management of resources, instead of the API provide...

Same Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses the same seed each time the product is initialized.

Security Version Number Mutable to Older Versions

Security-version number in hardware is mutable, resulting in the ability to downgrade (roll-back) the boot firmware to vulnerable code versions.

Selection of Less-Secure Algorithm During Negotiation ('Algorithm Downgrade')

A protocol or its implementation supports interaction between multiple actors and allows those actors to negotiate which algorithm should be used as a protection mecha...

Semiconductor Defects in Hardware Logic with Security-Sensitive Implications

The security-sensitive hardware module contains semiconductor defects.

Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute

The Secure attribute for sensitive cookies in HTTPS sessions is not set, which could cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session.

Sensitive Cookie with Improper SameSite Attribute

The SameSite attribute for sensitive cookies is not set, or an insecure value is used.

Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag

The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.

Sensitive Information Accessible by Physical Probing of JTAG Interface

Sensitive information in clear text on the JTAG interface may be examined by an eavesdropper, e.g. by placing a probe device on the int...

Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Debug/Power State Transition

Sensitive information may leak as a result of a debug or power state transition when information access restrictions change as a result of the transition.

Sensitive Non-Volatile Information Not Protected During Debug

Access to security-sensitive information stored in fuses is not limited during debug.

Sequence of Processor Instructions Leads to Unexpected Behavior (Halt and Catch Fire)

Specific combinations of processor instructions lead to undesirable behavior such as locking the processor until a hard reset performed.

Serializable Data Element Containing non-Serializable Item Elements

The software contains a serializable, storable data element such as a field or member, but the data element contains member elements that are not serializable.

Server-generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)

The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the reques...

Servlet Runtime Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.

Session Fixation

Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal au...

Signal Handler Function Associated with Multiple Signals

The software defines a function that is used as a handler for more than one signal.

Signal Handler with Functionality that is not Asynchronous-Safe

The software defines a signal handler that contains code sequences that are not asynchronous-safe, i.e., the functionality is not reentrant, or it can be interrupted.

Singleton Class Instance Creation without Proper Locking or Synchronization

The software implements a Singleton design pattern but does not use appropriate locking or other synchronization mechanism to ensure that the singleton class is only i...

Small Seed Space in PRNG

A PRNG uses a relatively small space of seeds.

Small Space of Random Values

The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.

Source Code Element without Standard Prologue

The source code contains elements such as source files that do not consistently provide a prologue or header that has been standardized for the project.

Source Code File with Excessive Number of Lines of Code

A source code file has too many lines of code.

Spyware

The software collects personally identifiable information about a human user or the user's activities, but the software accesses this information using other resources...

Static Member Data Element outside of a Singleton Class Element

The code contains a member element that is declared as static (but not final), in which its parent class element is not a singleton class - that is, a class...

Storage of File With Sensitive Data Under FTP Root

The application stores sensitive data under the FTP server root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.

Storage of File with Sensitive Data Under Web Root

The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.

Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control

The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.

Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use

When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient ...

Struts: Unused Validation Form

An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.

Suspicious Comment

The code contains comments that suggest the presence of bugs, incomplete functionality, or weaknesses.

Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object

A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.

Synchronous Access of Remote Resource without Timeout

The code has a synchronous call to a remote resource, but there is no timeout for the call, or the timeout is set to infinite.

System-on-Chip (SoC) Using Components without Unique, Immutable Identifiers

The System-on-Chip (SoC) does not have unique, immutable identifiers for each of its components.

The UI Performs the Wrong Action

The UI performs the wrong action with respect to the user's request.

Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')

The software makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the software.

Trapdoor

A trapdoor is a hidden piece of code that responds to a special input, allowing its user access to resources without passing through the normal security enforcement me...

Trojan Horse

The software appears to contain benign or useful functionality, but it also contains code that is hidden from normal operation that violates the intended security poli...

Truncation of Security-relevant Information

The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.

Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side

The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This mig...

UI Discrepancy for Security Feature

The user interface does not correctly enable or configure a security feature, but the interface provides feedback that causes the user to believe that the feature is i...

Unauthorized Error Injection Can Degrade Hardware Redundancy

An unauthorized agent can inject errors into a redundant block to deprive the system of redundancy or put the system in a degraded operating mode.

Unchecked Return Value to NULL Pointer Dereference

The product does not check for an error after calling a function that can return with a NULL pointer if the function fails, which leads to a resultant NULL pointer der...

Unconditional Control Flow Transfer outside of Switch Block

The software performs unconditional control transfer (such as a "goto") in code outside of a branching structure such as a switch block.

Uncontrolled Search Path Element

The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.

Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI

A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not...

Uninitialized Value on Reset for Registers Holding Security Settings

Security-critical logic is not set to a known value on reset.

Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')

The product receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the product does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request bef...

Unintended Reentrant Invocation of Non-reentrant Code Via Nested Calls

During execution of non-reentrant code, the software performs a call that unintentionally produces a nested invocation of the non-reentrant code.

UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following

The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended co...

Unlock of a Resource that is not Locked

The software attempts to unlock a resource that is not locked.

Unnecessary Complexity in Protection Mechanism (Not Using 'Economy of Mechanism')

The software uses a more complex mechanism than necessary, which could lead to resultant weaknesses when the mechanism is not correctly understood, modeled, configured...

Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery

The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.

Unprotected Alternate Channel

The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.

Unprotected Confidential Information on Device is Accessible by OSAT Vendors

The product does not adequately protect confidential information on the device from being accessed by Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test (OSAT) vendors.

Unprotected Primary Channel

The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.

Unquoted Search Path or Element

The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access re...

Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type

The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.

Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting

An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.

Untrusted Pointer Dereference

The program obtains a value from an untrusted source, converts this value to a pointer, and dereferences the resulting pointer.

Untrusted Search Path

The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.

Unverified Ownership

The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.

Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm

The use of a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm is an unnecessary risk that may result in the exposure of sensitive information.

Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date

The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attac...

Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context

The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call ...

Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt

The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software uses a predictable salt as part of ...

Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt

The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software does not also use a salt as part of...

Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive

This device implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard or unproven cryptographic primitive.

Use of Blocking Code in Single-threaded, Non-blocking Context

The product uses a non-blocking model that relies on a single threaded process for features such as scalability, but it contains code that can block when it is invo...

Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information

The code uses a cache that contains sensitive information, but the cache can be read by an actor outside of the intended control sphere.

Use of Client-Side Authentication

A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client tha...

Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.

Use of Expired File Descriptor

The software uses or accesses a file descriptor after it has been closed.

Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection')

The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper clas...

Use of Hard-coded Credentials

The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to exte...

Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants

The program uses hard-coded constants instead of symbolic names for security-critical values, which increases the likelihood of mistakes during code maintenance or sec...

Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication

The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.

Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causin...

Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference

The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data

Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.

Use of Insufficiently Random Values

The software uses insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.

Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context

The product uses a constant value, name, or reference, but this value can (or should) vary across different environments.

Use of Less Trusted Source

The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resi...

Use of Low-Level Functionality

The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.

Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier

The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.

Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions

The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass ...

Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference

Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.

Use of Object without Invoking Destructor Method

The software contains a method that accesses an object but does not later invoke the element's associated finalize/destructor method.

Use of Out-of-range Pointer Offset

The program performs pointer arithmetic on a valid pointer, but it uses an offset that can point outside of the intended range of valid memory locations for the result...

Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication

The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data st...

Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort

The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking a...

Use of Password System for Primary Authentication

The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.

Use of Persistent Cookies Containing Sensitive Information

The web application uses persistent cookies, but the cookies contain sensitive information.

Use of Platform-Dependent Third Party Components

The product relies on third-party software components that do not provide equivalent functionality across all desirable platforms.

Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator

The device uses an algorithm that is predictable and generates a pseudo-random number.

Use of Prohibited Code

The software uses a function, library, or third party component that has been explicitly prohibited, whether by the developer or the customer.

Use of Redundant Code

The software has multiple functions, methods, procedures, macros, etc. that contain the same code.

Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP

The software uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.

Use of Same Invokable Control Element in Multiple Architectural Layers

The software uses the same control element across multiple architectural layers.

Use of Same Variable for Multiple Purposes

The code contains a callable, block, or other code element in which the same variable is used to control more than one unique task or store more than one ins...

Use of Single-factor Authentication

The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.

Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument

The product calls umask() with an incorrect argument that is specified as if it is an argument to chmod().

Use of Uninitialized Resource

The software uses or accesses a resource that has not been initialized.

Use of Unmaintained Third Party Components

The product relies on third-party components that are not actively supported or maintained by the original developer or a trusted proxy for the original deve...

Use of Web Browser Cache Containing Sensitive Information

The web application does not use an appropriate caching policy that specifies the extent to which each web page and associated form fields should be cached.

Use of Web Link to Untrusted Target with window.opener Access

The web application produces links to untrusted external sites outside of its sphere of control, but it does not properly prevent the external site from modifying sec...

User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information

The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is oft...

Violation of Secure Design Principles

The product violates well-established principles for secure design.

Weak Encoding for Password

Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.

Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password

The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.

Weak Password Requirements

The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.

Write-what-where Condition

Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.


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