Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File
Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.
While logging all information may be helpful during development stages, it is important that logging levels be set appropriately before a product ships so that sensitive user data and system information are not accidentally exposed to potential attackers.
Different log files may be produced and stored for:
Server log files (e.g. server.log). This can give information on whatever application left the file. Usually this can give full path names and system information, and sometimes usernames and passwords.
log files that are used for debugging
The following examples help to illustrate the nature of this weakness and describe methods or techniques which can be used to mitigate the risk.
Note that the examples here are by no means exhaustive and any given weakness may have many subtle varieties, each of which may require different detection methods or runtime controls.
In the following code snippet, a user's full name and credit card number are written to a log file.
This code stores location information about the current user:
When the application encounters an exception it will write the user object to the log. Because the user object contains location information, the user's location is also written to the log.
In the example below, the method getUserBankAccount retrieves a bank account object from a database using the supplied username and account number to query the database. If an SQLException is raised when querying the database, an error message is created and output to a log file.
The error message that is created includes information about the database query that may contain sensitive information about the database or query logic. In this case, the error message will expose the table name and column names used in the database. This data could be used to simplify other attacks, such as SQL injection (CWE-89) to directly access the database.
Weaknesses in this category are related to sensitive information exposure.
Weaknesses in this category are related to the A09 category "Security Logging and Monitoring Failures" in the OWASP Top Ten 2021.
Weaknesses in this category are related to the rules and recommendations in the Input Output (FIO) section of the SEI CERT Oracle Secure Coding Standard for Java.
This view (slice) covers all the elements in CWE.
This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during implementation.
This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during design.