Weaknesses Introduced During Design

A view in the Common Weakness Enumeration published by The MITRE Corporation.


Objective

Views in the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) represent one perspective with which to consider a set of weaknesses.

This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during design.

Weaknesses

Absolute Path Traversal

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such...

Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data

The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.

Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method

The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.

Addition of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling

The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of th...

Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling

The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be...

Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation

The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is n...

Application-Level Admin Tool with Inconsistent View of Underlying Operating System

The product provides an application for administrators to manage parts of the underlying operating system, but the application does not accurately identify all of the ...

Architecture with Number of Horizontal Layers Outside of Expected Range

The software's architecture contains too many - or too few - horizontal layers.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Improper Model Validation

The ASP.NET application does not use, or incorrectly uses, the model validation framework.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework

The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File

Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attac...

Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer

The software sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.

Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)

Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.

Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer

Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.

Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name

The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all...

Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data

The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.

Authentication Bypass by Capture-replay

A capture-replay flaw exists when the design of the software makes it possible for a malicious user to sniff network traffic and bypass authentication by replaying it ...

Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness

The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.

Authentication Bypass by Spoofing

This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.

Authentication Bypass Using an Alternate Path or Channel

A product requires authentication, but the product has an alternate path or channel that does not require authentication.

Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created

The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.

Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled Key

The system's authorization functionality does not prevent one user from gaining access to another user's data or record by modifying the key value identifying the data.

Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key

The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be cont...

Automated Recognition Mechanism with Inadequate Detection or Handling of Adversarial Input Perturbations

The product uses an automated mechanism such as machine learning to recognize complex data inputs (e.g. image or audio) as a particular concept or category, but it doe...

Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment

A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.

Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow')

The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.

Call to Non-ubiquitous API

The software uses an API function that does not exist on all versions of the target platform. This could cause portability problems or inconsistencies that allow denia...

Channel Accessible by Non-Endpoint

The product does not adequately verify the identity of actors at both ends of a communication channel, or does not adequately ensure the integrity of the channel, in a...

Cleartext Storage in a File or on Disk

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a file, or on disk.

Cleartext Storage in the Registry

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in the registry.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within a resource that might be accessible to another control sphere.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in a Cookie

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in a cookie.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in GUI

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext within the GUI.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Memory

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in memory.

Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Information

The software transmits sensitive or security-critical data in cleartext in a communication channel that can be sniffed by unauthorized actors.

Client-Side Enforcement of Server-Side Security

The software is composed of a server that relies on the client to implement a mechanism that is intended to protect the server.

Comparison Logic is Vulnerable to Power Side-Channel Attacks

A device's real time power consumption may be monitored during security token evaluation and the information gleaned may be used to determine the value of the referenc...

Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')

The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a ...

Context Switching Race Condition

A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker...

Covert Timing Channel

Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system beha...

CPU Hardware Not Configured to Support Exclusivity of Write and Execute Operations

The CPU is not configured to provide hardware support for exclusivity of write and execute operations on memory. This allows an attacker to execute data from all of me...

Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions

The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.

Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions

Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.

Critical Data Element Declared Public

The software declares a critical variable, field, or member to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

The web application does not, or can not, sufficiently verify whether a well-formed, valid, consistent request was intentionally provided by the user who submitted the...

Cryptographic Operations are run Before Supporting Units are Ready

Performing cryptographic operations without ensuring that the supporting inputs are ready to supply valid data may compromise the cryptographic result.

Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations

The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked w...

Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception

Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.

Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception

Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.

Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Deserialization of Untrusted Data

The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.

Detection of Error Condition Without Action

The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.

Direct Request ('Forced Browsing')

The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.

DMA Device Enabled Too Early in Boot Phase

The product enables a Direct Memory Access (DMA) capable device before the security configuration settings are established, which allows an attacker to extract data fr...

Double Free

The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.

Download of Code Without Integrity Check

The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.

Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist)

Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using AWT/Swing.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the class loader.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the java.io package.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using sockets.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.

Empty Password in Configuration File

Using an empty string as a password is insecure.

Execution with Unnecessary Privileges

The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of o...

Expected Behavior Violation

A feature, API, or function does not perform according to its specification.

Exposed Chip Debug and Test Interface With Insufficient or Missing Authorization

The chip does not implement or does not correctly check whether users are authorized to access internal registers.

Exposed Dangerous Method or Function

The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous met...

Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control

The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.

Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method

An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. t...

Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak')

A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descript...

Exposure of Information Through Shell Error Message

A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions th...

Exposure of Private Personal Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product does not properly prevent a person's private, personal information from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the...

Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere

The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Due to Incompatible Policies

The product's intended functionality exposes information to certain actors in accordance with the developer's security policy, but this information is regarded as sens...

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Data Queries

When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Environmental Variables

Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.

Exposure of Sensitive Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product exposes sensitive information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.

Exposure of Sensitive System Information Due to Uncleared Debug Information

The hardware does not fully clear security-sensitive values, such as keys and intermediate values in cryptographic operations, when debug mode is entered.

Exposure of WSDL File Containing Sensitive Information

The Web services architecture may require exposing a Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how ...

External Control of Critical State Data

The software stores security-critical state information about its users, or the software itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.

External Control of File Name or Path

The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.

External Influence of Sphere Definition

The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.

External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores

The software initializes critical internal variables or data stores using inputs that can be modified by untrusted actors.

Externally Controlled Reference to a Resource in Another Sphere

The product uses an externally controlled name or reference that resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Externally-Generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The application performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated or controlled by the application, such as an...

Fabric-Address Map Allows Programming of Unwarranted Overlaps of Protected and Unprotected Ranges

The address map of the on-chip fabric has protected and unprotected regions overlapping, allowing an attacker to bypass access control to the overlapping portion of th...

Failure to Disable Reserved Bits

The reserved bits in a hardware design are not disabled prior to production. Typically, reserved bits are used for future capabilities and should not support any funct...

Failure to Handle Incomplete Element

The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.

Failure to Handle Missing Parameter

If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments c...

Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)

The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.

Firmware Not Updateable

A product's firmware cannot be updated or patched, leaving weaknesses present with no means of repair and the product vulnerable to attack.

Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.

Generation of Incorrect Security Tokens

The product implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Se...

Generation of Predictable IV with CBC Mode

The product generates and uses a predictable initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode, which causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary ...

Generation of Predictable Numbers or Identifiers

The product uses a scheme that generates numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required.

Generation of Weak Initialization Vector (IV)

The product uses a cryptographic primitive that uses an Initialization Vector (IV), but the product does not generate IVs that are sufficiently unpredictable or ...

Guessable CAPTCHA

The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.

Hardware Allows Activation of Test or Debug Logic at Runtime

During runtime, the hardware allows for test or debug logic (feature) to be activated, which allows for changing the state of the hardware. This feature can alter the ...

Hardware Features Enable Physical Attacks from Software

Software-controllable device functionality such as power and clock management permits unauthorized modification of memory or register bits.

Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks

System configuration protection may be bypassed during debug mode.

Hardware Logic Contains Race Conditions

A race condition in the hardware logic results in undermining security guarantees of the system.

Hardware Logic with Insecure De-Synchronization between Control and Data Channels

The hardware logic for error handling and security checks can incorrectly forward data before the security check is complete.

Heap-based Buffer Overflow

A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer ...

Hidden Functionality

The software contains functionality that is not documented, not part of the specification, and not accessible through an interface or command sequence that is obvious ...

Improper Access Control

The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.

Improper Access Control Applied to Mirrored or Aliased Memory Regions

Aliased or mirrored memory regions in hardware designs may have inconsistent read/write permissions enforced by the hardware. A possible result is that an untrusted ag...

Improper Access to Sensitive Information Using Debug and Test Interfaces

The product's physical debug and test interface protection does not block untrusted agents, resulting in unauthorized access to and potentially control of sensitive as...

Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code

The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.

Improper Adherence to Coding Standards

The software does not follow certain coding rules for development, which can lead to resultant weaknesses or increase the severity of the associated vulnerabilities.

Improper Authentication

When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.

Improper Authorization

The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.

Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information

The product creates a search index of private or sensitive documents, but it does not properly limit index access to actors who are authorized to see the original info...

Improper Certificate Validation

The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.

Improper Check for Certificate Revocation

The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.

Improper Check for Dropped Privileges

The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.

Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions

The software does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the software.

Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.

Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or ex...

Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion')

The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or...

Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutraliz...

Improper Control of Interaction Frequency

The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.

Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource t...

Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output

The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a r...

Improper Enforcement of Message Integrity During Transmission in a Communication Channel

The software establishes a communication channel with an endpoint and receives a message from that endpoint, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the message was n...

Improper Export of Android Application Components

The Android application exports a component for use by other applications, but does not properly restrict which applications can launch the component or access the dat...

Improper Finite State Machines (FSMs) in Hardware Logic

Faulty finite state machines (FSMs) in the hardware logic allow an attacker to put the system in an undefined state, to cause a denial of service (DoS) or gain privile...

Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust

The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any reso...

Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path

The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.

Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associa...

Improper Handling of Hardware Behavior in Exceptionally Cold Environments

A hardware device, or the firmware running on it, is missing or has incorrect protection features to maintain goals of security primiti...

Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.

Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.

Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG

True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges

The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This...

Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.

Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency

The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the a...

Improper Handling of Overlap Between Protected Memory Ranges

The product allows address regions to overlap, which can result in the bypassing of intended memory protection.

Improper Handling of Parameters

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.

Improper Handling of Single Event Upsets

The hardware logic does not effectively handle when single-event upsets (SEUs) occur.

Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.

Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.

Improper Handling of Undefined Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.

Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).

Improper Handling of Values

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.

Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream

The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).

Improper Handling of Windows Device Names

The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This t...

Improper Hardware Lock Protection for Security Sensitive Controls

The product implements a register lock bit protection feature that permits security sensitive controls to modify the protected configuration.

Improper Implementation of Lock Protection Registers

The product incorrectly implements register lock bit protection features such that protected controls can be programmed even after the lock has been set.

Improper Input Validation

The product receives input or data, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input has the properties that are required to process th...

Improper Interaction Between Multiple Correctly-Behaving Entities

An interaction error occurs when two entities have correct behavior when running independently of each other, but when they are integrated as components in a larger sy...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources in Network On Chip

The product does not isolate or incorrectly isolates its on-chip-fabric and internal resources such that they are shared between trusted and untrusted agents, creating...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources on System-on-a-Chip (SoC)

The product does not properly isolate shared resources between trusted and untrusted agents.

Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but...

Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition

Register lock bit protection disables changes to system configuration once the bit is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power...

Improper Locking

The software does not properly acquire or release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.

Improper Management of Sensitive Trace Data

Trace data collected from several sources on the System-on-Chip (SoC) is stored in unprotected locations or transported to untrusted ag...

Improper Neutralization

The product does not ensure or incorrectly ensures that structured messages or data are well-formed and that certain security properties are met before being read from...

Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection')

The software constructs a string for a command to executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, ...

Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection')

The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF...

Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluatio...

Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable...

Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page

The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.

Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements

The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.

Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax

The application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw hea...

Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other us...

Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page

The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) ...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes sp...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements Used in a Template Engine

The product uses a template engine to insert or process externally-influenced input, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements or syntax t...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, ...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralize...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralize...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutraliz...

Improper Ownership Management

The software assigns the wrong ownership, or does not properly verify the ownership, of an object or resource.

Improper Physical Access Control

The product is to be designed with access restricted to certain information, but it does not sufficiently protect against an unauthorized actor's ability to access the...

Improper Preservation of Permissions

The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrict...

Improper Privilege Management

The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Improper Protection against Electromagnetic Fault Injection (EM-FI)

The device is susceptible to electromagnetic fault injection attacks, causing device internal information to be compromised or security mechanisms to be bypassed.

Improper Protection for Out of Bounds Signal Level Alerts

Untrusted agents can disable alerts about signal conditions exceeding limits or the response mechanism that handles such alerts.

Improper Protection of Alternate Path

The product does not sufficiently protect all possible paths that a user can take to access restricted functionality or resources.

Improper Protections Against Hardware Overheating

A hardware device is missing or has inadequate protection features to prevent overheating.

Improper Removal of Sensitive Information Before Storage or Transfer

The product stores, transfers, or shares a resource that contains sensitive information, but it does not properly remove that information before the product makes the ...

Improper Resource Locking

The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.

Improper Resource Shutdown or Release

The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.

Improper Restriction of Communication Channel to Intended Endpoints

The software establishes a communication channel to (or from) an endpoint for privileged or protected operations, but it does not properly ensure that it is communicat...

Improper Restriction of Excessive Authentication Attempts

The software does not implement sufficient measures to prevent multiple failed authentication attempts within in a short time frame, making it more susceptible to brut...

Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources

The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting...

Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer

The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.

Improper Restriction of Power Consumption

The software operates in an environment in which power is a limited resource that cannot be automatically replenished, but the software does not properly restrict the ...

Improper Restriction of Security Token Assignment

The System-On-A-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. ...

Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields

The hardware design control register "sticky bits" or write-once bit fields are improperly implemented, such that they can be reprogrammed by software.

Improper Scrubbing of Sensitive Data from Decommissioned Device

The product does not properly provide a capability for the product administrator to remove sensitive data at the time the product is decommissioned. A scrubbing capab...

Improper Setting of Bus Controlling Capability in Fabric End-point

The bus controller enables bits in the fabric end-point to allow responder devices to control transactions on the fabric.

Improper Synchronization

The software utilizes multiple threads or processes to allow temporary access to a shared resource that can only be exclusive to one process at a time, but it does not...

Improper Translation of Security Attributes by Fabric Bridge

The bridge incorrectly translates security attributes from either trusted to untrusted or from untrusted to trusted when converting from one fabric protocol to another.

Improper Use of Validation Framework

The application does not use, or incorrectly uses, an input validation framework that is provided by the source language or an independent library.

Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration

A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.

Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch

The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.

Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value

The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been...

Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature

The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.

Improper Verification of Intent by Broadcast Receiver

The Android application uses a Broadcast Receiver that receives an Intent but does not properly verify that the Intent came from an authorized source.

Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel

The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is...

Improper Write Handling in Limited-write Non-Volatile Memories

The product does not implement or incorrectly implements wear leveling operations in limited-write non-volatile memories.

Improper Zeroization of Hardware Register

The hardware product does not properly clear sensitive information from built-in registers when the user of the hardware block changes.

Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, bu...

Improperly Controlled Modification of Object Prototype Attributes ('Prototype Pollution')

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies attributes that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control m...

Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard

The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or tec...

Improperly Preserved Integrity of Hardware Configuration State During a Power Save/Restore Operation

The product performs a power save/restore operation, but it does not ensure that the integrity of the configuration state is maintained and/or ...

Inadequate Encryption Strength

The software stores or transmits sensitive data using an encryption scheme that is theoretically sound, but is not strong enough for the level of protection required.

Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits

The device includes chicken bits or undocumented features that can create entry points for unauthorized actors.

Incomplete Cleanup

The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.

Incomplete Internal State Distinction

The software does not properly determine which state it is in, causing it to assume it is in state X when in fact it is in state Y, causing it to perform incorrect ope...

Incomplete List of Disallowed Inputs

The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are not allowed by policy or otherwise require other actio...

Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features

A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, poten...

Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design

The implementation of the product is not consistent with the design as described within the relevant documentation.

Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling')

When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, the...

Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')

The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts operations within the boundaries of a resource that is accessed using an index or pointer, such as memory or fi...

Incorrect Authorization

The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows...

Incorrect Behavior Order

The product performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification

The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.

Incorrect Calculation

The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.

Incorrect Comparison Logic Granularity

The product's comparison logic is performed over a series of steps rather than across the entire string in one operation. If there is a comparison logic failure on one...

Incorrect Control Flow Scoping

The software does not properly return control flow to the proper location after it has completed a task or detected an unusual condition.

Incorrect Conversion of Security Identifiers

The product implements a conversion mechanism to map certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. However, if the conversion is incorrectly implemented, un...

Incorrect Decoding of Security Identifiers

The product implements a decoding mechanism to decode certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. If the decoding is implemented incorrectly, then untrust...

Incorrect Default Permissions

During installation, installed file permissions are set to allow anyone to modify those files.

Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions

While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.

Incorrect Ownership Assignment

The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.

Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource

The product specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.

Incorrect Privilege Assignment

A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres

The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides ...

Incorrect Selection of Fuse Values

The logic level used to set a system to a secure state relies on a fuse being unblown. An attacker can set the system to an insecure state merely by blowing the fuse.

Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast

The software does not correctly convert an object, resource, or structure from one type to a different type.

Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) but does not correctly manage seeds.

Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs

The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing t...

Incorrect User Management

The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.

Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel

The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.

Inefficient Algorithmic Complexity

An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typ...

Inefficient CPU Computation

The program performs CPU computations using algorithms that are not as efficient as they could be for the needs of the developer, i.e., the computati...

Information Loss or Omission

The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.

Insecure Automated Optimizations

The product uses a mechanism that automatically optimizes code, e.g. to improve a characteristic such as performance, but the optimizations can have an unintended side...

Insecure Default Variable Initialization

The software, by default, initializes an internal variable with an insecure or less secure value than is possible.

Insecure Inherited Permissions

A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.

Insecure Preserved Inherited Permissions

A product inherits a set of insecure permissions for an object, e.g. when copying from an archive file, without user awareness or involvement.

Insecure Security Identifier Mechanism

The System-on-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entit...

Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information

The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.

Insecure Temporary File

Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.

Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Debugging Code

The application inserts sensitive information into debugging code, which could expose this information if the debugging code is not disabled in production.

Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File

Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.

Insufficient Compartmentalization

The product does not sufficiently compartmentalize functionality or processes that require different privilege levels, rights, or permissions.

Insufficient Control Flow Management

The code does not sufficiently manage its control flow during execution, creating conditions in which the control flow can be modified in unexpected ways.

Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification)

The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should ...

Insufficient Entropy

The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.

Insufficient Entropy in PRNG

The lack of entropy available for, or used by, a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) can be a stability and security threat.

Insufficient Granularity of Access Control

The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system fro...

Insufficient Granularity of Address Regions Protected by Register Locks

The product defines a large address region protected from modification by the same register lock control bit. This results in a conflict between the functional require...

Insufficient Protection Against Instruction Skipping Via Fault Injection

The device is missing or incorrectly implements circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate CPU instruction skips that can be caused by...

Insufficient Protections on the Volatile Memory Containing Boot Code

The protections on the product's non-volatile memory containing boot code are insufficient to prevent the bypassing of secure boot or the execution of an untrusted, bo...

Insufficient Psychological Acceptability

The software has a protection mechanism that is too difficult or inconvenient to use, encouraging non-malicious users to disable or bypass the mechanism, whether by ac...

Insufficient Resource Pool

The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) ...

Insufficient Session Expiration

According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."

Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations

The user interface provides a warning to a user regarding dangerous or sensitive operations, but the warning is not noticeable enough to warrant attention.

Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity

The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.

Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User

The software displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or ide...

Insufficiently Protected Credentials

The product transmits or stores authentication credentials, but it uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.

Interpretation Conflict

Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.

Invocation of Process Using Visible Sensitive Information

A process is invoked with sensitive command-line arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections

The J2EE application directly manages connections, instead of using the container's connection management facilities.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets

The J2EE application directly uses sockets instead of using framework method calls.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads

Thread management in a Web application is forbidden in some circumstances and is always highly error prone.

J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session

The application stores a non-serializable object as an HttpSession attribute, which can hurt reliability.

J2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk

When the J2EE container attempts to write unserializable objects to disk there is no guarantee that the process will complete successfully.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote

When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to re...

J2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length

The J2EE application is configured to use an insufficient session ID length.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page

The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File

The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods

If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.

Key Exchange without Entity Authentication

The software performs a key exchange with an actor without verifying the identity of that actor.

Lack of Administrator Control over Security

The product uses security features in a way that prevents the product's administrator from tailoring security settings to reflect the environment in which the product ...

Least Privilege Violation

The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.

Logic/Time Bomb

The software contains code that is designed to disrupt the legitimate operation of the software (or its environment) when a certain time passes, or when a certain logi...

Misinterpretation of Input

The software misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.

Missing Ability to Patch ROM Code

Missing an ability to patch ROM code may leave a System or System-on-Chip (SoC) in a vulnerable state.

Missing Authentication for Critical Function

The software does not perform any authentication for functionality that requires a provable user identity or consumes a significant amount of resources.

Missing Authorization

The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.

Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check

The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even ...

Missing Critical Step in Authentication

The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.

Missing Cryptographic Step

The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by the algorithm.

Missing Encryption of Sensitive Data

The software does not encrypt sensitive or critical information before storage or transmission.

Missing Immutable Root of Trust in Hardware

A missing immutable root of trust in the hardware results in the ability to bypass secure boot or execute untrusted or adversarial boot code.

Missing Lock Check

A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.

Missing Protection Against Hardware Reverse Engineering Using Integrated Circuit (IC) Imaging Techniques

Information stored in hardware may be recovered by an attacker with the capability to capture and analyze images of the integrated circuit using techniques such as sca...

Missing Protection for Mirrored Regions in On-Chip Fabric Firewall

The firewall in an on-chip fabric protects the main addressed region, but it does not protect any mirrored memory or memory-mapped-IO (MMIO) regions.

Missing Protection Mechanism for Alternate Hardware Interface

The lack of protections on alternate paths to access control-protected assets (such as unprotected shadow registers and other external ...

Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource

The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.

Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle

The software does not properly maintain references to a file descriptor or handle, which prevents that file descriptor/handle from being reclaimed.

Missing Release of Memory after Effective Lifetime

The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.

Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime

The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.

Missing Report of Error Condition

The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.

Missing Security Checks in Fabric Bridge

A bridge that is connected to a fabric without security features forwards transactions to the slave without checking the privilege level of the master. Similarly, it ...

Missing Security Identifier

The product implements a security identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. A transact...

Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data

The software relies on one source of data, preventing the ability to detect if an adversary has compromised a data source.

Missing Standardized Error Handling Mechanism

The software does not use a standardized method for handling errors throughout the code, which might introduce inconsistent error handling and resultant weaknesses.

Missing Support for Integrity Check

The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.

Missing Support for Security Features in On-chip Fabrics or Buses

On-chip fabrics or buses either do not support or are not configured to support privilege separation or other security features, such as access control.

Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate

The software uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary se...

Missing Write Protection for Parametric Data Values

The device does not write-protect the parametric data values for sensors that scale the sensor value, allowing untrusted software to manipulate the apparent result and...

Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)

The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.

Multiple Binds to the Same Port

When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.

Multiple Interpretations of UI Input

The UI has multiple interpretations of user input but does not prompt the user when it selects the less secure interpretation.

Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource

The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.

Mutable Attestation or Measurement Reporting Data

The register contents used for attestation or measurement reporting data to verify boot flow are modifiable by an adversary.

.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation

Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms ...

Non-exit on Failed Initialization

The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format ...

Non-Transparent Sharing of Microarchitectural Resources

Hardware structures shared across execution contexts (e.g., caches and branch predictors) can violate the expected architecture isolation between contexts.

Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open')

When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, su...

Not Using Complete Mediation

The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's righ...

Not Using Password Aging

If no mechanism is in place for managing password aging, users will have no incentive to update passwords in a timely manner.

Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name

The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy

The product's behaviors indicate important differences that may be observed by unauthorized actors in a way that reveals (1) its internal state or decision process, or...

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy With Equivalent Products

The product operates in an environment in which its existence or specific identity should not be known, but it behaves differently than other products with equivalent ...

Observable Discrepancy

The product behaves differently or sends different responses under different circumstances in a way that is observable to an unauthorized actor, which exposes security...

Observable Internal Behavioral Discrepancy

The product performs multiple behaviors that are combined to produce a single result, but the individual behaviors are observable separately in a way that allows attac...

Observable Response Discrepancy

The product provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that reveals internal state information to an unauthorized actor outside of the intended control...

Observable Timing Discrepancy

Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information a...

Omission of Security-relevant Information

The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.

Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release

The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.

Origin Validation Error

The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.

Overly Restrictive Account Lockout Mechanism

The software contains an account lockout protection mechanism, but the mechanism is too restrictive and can be triggered too easily, which allows attackers to deny ser...

Password Aging with Long Expiration

Allowing password aging to occur unchecked can result in the possibility of diminished password integrity.

Password in Configuration File

The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.

Path Traversal: '../filedir'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can res...

Permissive Cross-domain Policy with Untrusted Domains

The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.

Plaintext Storage of a Password

Storing a password in plaintext may result in a system compromise.

Policy Privileges are not Assigned Consistently Between Control and Data Agents

The product's hardware-enforced access control for a particular resource improperly accounts for privilege discrepancies between control and write policies.

Policy Uses Obsolete Encoding

The product uses an obsolete encoding mechanism to implement access controls.

Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values

An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.

Predictable from Observable State

A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.

Predictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) is initialized from a predictable seed, such as the process ID or system time.

Predictable Value Range from Previous Values

The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next va...

Privilege Chaining

Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that...

Privilege Context Switching Error

The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.

Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions

A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.

Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors

The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.

Processor Optimization Removal or Modification of Security-critical Code

The developer builds a security-critical protection mechanism into the software, but the processor optimizes the execution of the program such that the mechanism is re...

Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions

The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into...

Protection Mechanism Failure

The product does not use or incorrectly uses a protection mechanism that provides sufficient defense against directed attacks against the product.

Race Condition During Access to Alternate Channel

The product opens an alternate channel to communicate with an authorized user, but the channel is accessible to other actors.

Race Condition Enabling Link Following

The software checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the acc...

Race Condition for Write-Once Attributes

A write-once register in hardware design is programmable by an untrusted software component earlier than the trusted software component, resulting in a race condition ...

Race Condition within a Thread

If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution...

Reflection Attack in an Authentication Protocol

Simple authentication protocols are subject to reflection attacks if a malicious user can use the target machine to impersonate a trusted user.

Register Interface Allows Software Access to Sensitive Data or Security Settings

Memory-mapped registers provide access to hardware functionality from software and if not properly secured can result in loss of confidentiality and integrity.

Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision

A protection mechanism relies exclusively, or to a large extent, on the evaluation of a single condition or the integrity of a single object or entity in order to make...

Reliance on Component That is Not Updateable

The product contains a component that cannot be updated or patched in order to remove vulnerabilities or significant bugs.

Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking

The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid fo...

Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associ...

Reliance on Data/Memory Layout

The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.

Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File

The software allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attack...

Reliance on IP Address for Authentication

The software uses an IP address for authentication.

Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking

The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if thos...

Reliance on Reverse DNS Resolution for a Security-Critical Action

The software performs reverse DNS resolution on an IP address to obtain the hostname and make a security decision, but it does not properly ensure that the IP address ...

Reliance on Security Through Obscurity

The software uses a protection mechanism whose strength depends heavily on its obscurity, such that knowledge of its algorithms or key data is sufficient to defeat the...

Reliance on Untrusted Inputs in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of an input, but the input can be modified by an untrusted actor in a way that bypas...

Remanent Data Readable after Memory Erase

Confidential information stored in memory circuits is readable or recoverable after being cleared or erased.

Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range

A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.

Return of Wrong Status Code

A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the in...

Reusing a Nonce, Key Pair in Encryption

Nonces should be used for the present occasion and only once.

Reversible One-Way Hash

The product uses a hashing algorithm that produces a hash value that can be used to determine the original input, or to find an input that can produce the same hash, m...

Same Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses the same seed each time the product is initialized.

Security Version Number Mutable to Older Versions

Security-version number in hardware is mutable, resulting in the ability to downgrade (roll-back) the boot firmware to vulnerable code versions.

Selection of Less-Secure Algorithm During Negotiation ('Algorithm Downgrade')

A protocol or its implementation supports interaction between multiple actors and allows those actors to negotiate which algorithm should be used as a protection mecha...

Self-generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.

Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag

The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.

Sensitive Information Accessible by Physical Probing of JTAG Interface

Sensitive information in clear text on the JTAG interface may be examined by an eavesdropper, e.g. by placing a probe device on the int...

Sensitive Information in Resource Not Removed Before Reuse

When a device releases a resource such as memory or a file for reuse by other entities, information contained in the resource is not fully cleared prior to reuse of th...

Sensitive Information Uncleared Before Debug/Power State Transition

Sensitive information may leak as a result of a debug or power state transition when information access restrictions change as a result of the transition.

Sensitive Non-Volatile Information Not Protected During Debug

Access to security-sensitive information stored in fuses is not limited during debug.

Sequence of Processor Instructions Leads to Unexpected Behavior

Specific combinations of processor instructions lead to undesirable behavior such as locking the processor until a hard reset performed.

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)

The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the reques...

Session Fixation

Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal au...

Signal Handler Race Condition

The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.

Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function

The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.

Small Seed Space in PRNG

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses a relatively small seed space, which makes it more susceptible to brute force attacks.

Small Space of Random Values

The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.

Spyware

The software collects personally identifiable information about a human user or the user's activities, but the software accesses this information using other resources...

SQL Injection: Hibernate

Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL...

Stack-based Buffer Overflow

A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter ...

Storage of File With Sensitive Data Under FTP Root

The application stores sensitive data under the FTP server root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.

Storage of Sensitive Data in a Mechanism without Access Control

The software stores sensitive information in a file system or device that does not have built-in access control.

Storing Passwords in a Recoverable Format

The storage of passwords in a recoverable format makes them subject to password reuse attacks by malicious users. In fact, it should be noted that recoverable encrypte...

Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object

A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.

System-on-Chip (SoC) Using Components without Unique, Immutable Identifiers

The System-on-Chip (SoC) does not have unique, immutable identifiers for each of its components.

Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')

The software makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the software.

Trapdoor

A trapdoor is a hidden piece of code that responds to a special input, allowing its user access to resources without passing through the normal security enforcement me...

Truncation of Security-relevant Information

The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.

Trust Boundary Violation

The product mixes trusted and untrusted data in the same data structure or structured message.

Trust of System Event Data

Security based on event locations are insecure and can be spoofed.

Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side

The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This mig...

UI Discrepancy for Security Feature

The user interface does not correctly enable or configure a security feature, but the interface provides feedback that causes the user to believe that the feature is i...

Unauthorized Error Injection Can Degrade Hardware Redundancy

An unauthorized agent can inject errors into a redundant block to deprive the system of redundancy or put the system in a degraded operating mode.

Unchecked Error Condition

[PLANNED FOR DEPRECATION. SEE MAINTENANCE NOTES AND CONSIDER CWE-252, CWE-248, OR CWE-1069.] Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to in...

Uncontrolled Resource Consumption

The software does not properly control the allocation and maintenance of a limited resource, thereby enabling an actor to influence the amount of resources consumed, e...

Undefined Behavior for Input to API

The behavior of this function is undefined unless its control parameter is set to a specific value.

Unexpected Status Code or Return Value

The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.

Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI

A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not...

Unintended Proxy or Intermediary ('Confused Deputy')

The product receives a request, message, or directive from an upstream component, but the product does not sufficiently preserve the original source of the request bef...

Unnecessary Complexity in Protection Mechanism (Not Using 'Economy of Mechanism')

The software uses a more complex mechanism than necessary, which could lead to resultant weaknesses when the mechanism is not correctly understood, modeled, configured...

Unprotected Alternate Channel

The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.

Unprotected Primary Channel

The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.

Unprotected Transport of Credentials

Login pages do not use adequate measures to protect the user name and password while they are in transit from the client to the server.

Unprotected Windows Messaging Channel ('Shatter')

The software does not properly verify the source of a message in the Windows Messaging System while running at elevated privileges, creating an alternate channel throu...

Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock

The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of...

Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type

The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.

Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting

An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.

Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context

The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.

Untrusted Search Path

The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.

Unverified Ownership

The software does not properly verify that a critical resource is owned by the proper entity.

Unverified Password Change

When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.

URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect')

A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.

Use After Free

Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.

Use of a Broken or Risky Cryptographic Algorithm

The use of a broken or risky cryptographic algorithm is an unnecessary risk that may result in the exposure of sensitive information.

Use of a Key Past its Expiration Date

The product uses a cryptographic key or password past its expiration date, which diminishes its safety significantly by increasing the timing window for cracking attac...

Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context

The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call ...

Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive

This device implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard or unproven cryptographic primitive.

Use of Client-Side Authentication

A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client tha...

Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.

Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection')

The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper clas...

Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations

The code uses a function that has inconsistent implementations across operating systems and versions.

Use of GET Request Method With Sensitive Query Strings

The web application uses the HTTP GET method to process a request and includes sensitive information in the query string of that request.

Use of Hard-coded Credentials

The software contains hard-coded credentials, such as a password or cryptographic key, which it uses for its own inbound authentication, outbound communication to exte...

Use of Hard-coded Cryptographic Key

The use of a hard-coded cryptographic key significantly increases the possibility that encrypted data may be recovered.

Use of Hard-coded Password

The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.

Use of Implicit Intent for Sensitive Communication

The Android application uses an implicit intent for transmitting sensitive data to other applications.

Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causin...

Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference

The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Use of Insufficiently Random Values

The software uses insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.

Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context

The product uses a constant value, name, or reference, but this value can (or should) vary across different environments.

Use of Less Trusted Source

The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resi...

Use of Low-Level Functionality

The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.

Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier

The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.

Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions

The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass ...

Use of Password Hash With Insufficient Computational Effort

The software generates a hash for a password, but it uses a scheme that does not provide a sufficient level of computational effort that would make password cracking a...

Use of Password System for Primary Authentication

The use of password systems as the primary means of authentication may be subject to several flaws or shortcomings, each reducing the effectiveness of the mechanism.

Use of Persistent Cookies Containing Sensitive Information

The web application uses persistent cookies, but the cookies contain sensitive information.

Use of Potentially Dangerous Function

The program invokes a potentially dangerous function that could introduce a vulnerability if it is used incorrectly, but the function can also be used safely.

Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator

The device uses an algorithm that is predictable and generates a pseudo-random number.

Use of Prohibited Code

The software uses a function, library, or third party component that has been explicitly prohibited, whether by the developer or the customer.

Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP

The software uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.

Use of Single-factor Authentication

The use of single-factor authentication can lead to unnecessary risk of compromise when compared with the benefits of a dual-factor authentication scheme.

Use of Web Link to Untrusted Target with window.opener Access

The web application produces links to untrusted external sites outside of its sphere of control, but it does not properly prevent the external site from modifying sec...

User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information

The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is oft...

Using Referer Field for Authentication

The referer field in HTTP requests can be easily modified and, as such, is not a valid means of message integrity checking.

Violation of Secure Design Principles

The product violates well-established principles for secure design.

Weak Encoding for Password

Obscuring a password with a trivial encoding does not protect the password.

Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password

The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.

Weak Password Requirements

The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.

XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)

The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is ...


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