Weaknesses Introduced During Implementation

A view in the Common Weakness Enumeration published by The MITRE Corporation.


Objective

Views in the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) represent one perspective with which to consider a set of weaknesses.

This view (slice) lists weaknesses that can be introduced during implementation.

Weaknesses

Absolute Path Traversal

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize absolute path sequences such...

Acceptance of Extraneous Untrusted Data With Trusted Data

The software, when processing trusted data, accepts any untrusted data that is also included with the trusted data, treating the untrusted data as if it were trusted.

Access Control Check Implemented After Asset is Accessed

A product's hardware-based access control check occurs after the asset has been accessed.

Access of Resource Using Incompatible Type ('Type Confusion')

The program allocates or initializes a resource such as a pointer, object, or variable using one type, but it later accesses that resource using a type that is incompa...

Access to Critical Private Variable via Public Method

The software defines a public method that reads or modifies a private variable.

Active Debug Code

The application is deployed to unauthorized actors with debugging code still enabled or active, which can create unintended entry points or expose sensitive information.

Addition of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental addition of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Allocation of File Descriptors or Handles Without Limits or Throttling

The software allocates file descriptors or handles on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on how many descriptors can be allocated, in violation of th...

Allocation of Resources Without Limits or Throttling

The software allocates a reusable resource or group of resources on behalf of an actor without imposing any restrictions on the size or number of resources that can be...

Always-Incorrect Control Flow Implementation

The code contains a control flow path that does not reflect the algorithm that the path is intended to implement, leading to incorrect behavior any time this path is n...

Application-Level Admin Tool with Inconsistent View of Underlying Operating System

The product provides an application for administrators to manage parts of the underlying operating system, but the application does not accurately identify all of the ...

Array Declared Public, Final, and Static

The program declares an array public, final, and static, which is not sufficient to prevent the array's contents from being modified.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Creating Debug Binary

Debugging messages help attackers learn about the system and plan a form of attack.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Improper Model Validation

The ASP.NET application does not use, or incorrectly uses, the model validation framework.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page

An ASP .NET application must enable custom error pages in order to prevent attackers from mining information from the framework's built-in responses.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Not Using Input Validation Framework

The ASP.NET application does not use an input validation framework.

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Password in Configuration File

Storing a plaintext password in a configuration file allows anyone who can read the file access to the password-protected resource making them an easy target for attac...

ASP.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Identity Impersonation

Configuring an ASP.NET application to run with impersonated credentials may give the application unnecessary privileges.

Assigning instead of Comparing

The code uses an operator for assignment when the intention was to perform a comparison.

Assignment of a Fixed Address to a Pointer

The software sets a pointer to a specific address other than NULL or 0.

Assignment to Variable without Use

The variable's value is assigned but never used, making it a dead store.

Assumed-Immutable Data is Stored in Writable Memory

Immutable data, such as a first-stage bootloader, device identifiers, and "write-once" configuration settings are stored in writable memory that can be re-programmed o...

Asymmetric Resource Consumption (Amplification)

Software that does not appropriately monitor or control resource consumption can lead to adverse system performance.

Attempt to Access Child of a Non-structure Pointer

Casting a non-structure type to a structure type and accessing a field can lead to memory access errors or data corruption.

Authentication Bypass by Alternate Name

The software performs authentication based on the name of a resource being accessed, or the name of the actor performing the access, but it does not properly check all...

Authentication Bypass by Assumed-Immutable Data

The authentication scheme or implementation uses key data elements that are assumed to be immutable, but can be controlled or modified by the attacker.

Authentication Bypass by Primary Weakness

The authentication algorithm is sound, but the implemented mechanism can be bypassed as the result of a separate weakness that is primary to the authentication error.

Authentication Bypass by Spoofing

This attack-focused weakness is caused by improperly implemented authentication schemes that are subject to spoofing attacks.

Authentication Bypass: OpenSSL CTX Object Modified after SSL Objects are Created

The software modifies the SSL context after connection creation has begun.

Authorization Bypass Through User-Controlled SQL Primary Key

The software uses a database table that includes records that should not be accessible to an actor, but it executes a SQL statement with a primary key that can be cont...

Behavioral Change in New Version or Environment

A's behavior or functionality changes with a new version of A, or a new environment, which is not known (or manageable) by B.

Buffer Access Using Size of Source Buffer

The software uses the size of a source buffer when reading from or writing to a destination buffer, which may cause it to access memory that is outside of the bounds o...

Buffer Access with Incorrect Length Value

The software uses a sequential operation to read or write a buffer, but it uses an incorrect length value that causes it to access memory that is outside of the bounds...

Buffer Copy without Checking Size of Input ('Classic Buffer Overflow')

The program copies an input buffer to an output buffer without verifying that the size of the input buffer is less than the size of the output buffer, leading to a buf...

Buffer Over-read

The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations after the targeted buffer.

Buffer Under-read

The software reads from a buffer using buffer access mechanisms such as indexes or pointers that reference memory locations prior to the targeted buffer.

Buffer Underwrite ('Buffer Underflow')

The software writes to a buffer using an index or pointer that references a memory location prior to the beginning of the buffer.

Call to Non-ubiquitous API

The software uses an API function that does not exist on all versions of the target platform. This could cause portability problems or inconsistencies that allow denia...

Call to Thread run() instead of start()

The program calls a thread's run() method instead of calling start(), which causes the code to run in the thread of the caller instead of the callee.

Cleartext Storage of Sensitive Information in Executable

The application stores sensitive information in cleartext in an executable.

clone() Method Without super.clone()

The software contains a clone() method that does not call super.clone() to obtain the new object.

Cloneable Class Containing Sensitive Information

The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class is cloneable. The data can then be accessed by cloning the class.

Collapse of Data into Unsafe Value

The software filters data in a way that causes it to be reduced or "collapsed" into an unsafe value that violates an expected security property.

Command Shell in Externally Accessible Directory

A possible shell file exists in /cgi-bin/ or other accessible directories. This is extremely dangerous and can be used by an attacker to execute commands on the web se...

Comparing instead of Assigning

The code uses an operator for comparison when the intention was to perform an assignment.

Comparison Logic is Vulnerable to Power Side-Channel Attacks

A device's real time power consumption may be monitored during security token evaluation and the information gleaned may be used to determine the value of the referenc...

Comparison of Classes by Name

The program compares classes by name, which can cause it to use the wrong class when multiple classes can have the same name.

Comparison of Incompatible Types

The software performs a comparison between two entities, but the entities are of different, incompatible types that cannot be guaranteed to provide correct results whe...

Comparison of Object References Instead of Object Contents

The program compares object references instead of the contents of the objects themselves, preventing it from detecting equivalent objects.

Comparison Using Wrong Factors

The code performs a comparison between two entities, but the comparison examines the wrong factors or characteristics of the entities, which can lead to incorrect resu...

Compiler Removal of Code to Clear Buffers

Sensitive memory is cleared according to the source code, but compiler optimizations leave the memory untouched when it is not read from again, aka "dead store removal."

Concurrent Execution using Shared Resource with Improper Synchronization ('Race Condition')

The program contains a code sequence that can run concurrently with other code, and the code sequence requires temporary, exclusive access to a shared resource, but a ...

Context Switching Race Condition

A product performs a series of non-atomic actions to switch between contexts that cross privilege or other security boundaries, but a race condition allows an attacker...

Covert Channel

A covert channel is a path that can be used to transfer information in a way not intended by the system's designers.

Covert Storage Channel

A covert storage channel transfers information through the setting of bits by one program and the reading of those bits by another. What distinguishes this case from t...

Covert Timing Channel

Covert timing channels convey information by modulating some aspect of system behavior over time, so that the program receiving the information can observe system beha...

Creation of chroot Jail Without Changing Working Directory

The program uses the chroot() system call to create a jail, but does not change the working directory afterward. This does not prevent access to files outside of the j...

Creation of Temporary File in Directory with Insecure Permissions

The software creates a temporary file in a directory whose permissions allow unintended actors to determine the file's existence or otherwise access that file.

Creation of Temporary File With Insecure Permissions

Opening temporary files without appropriate measures or controls can leave the file, its contents and any function that it impacts vulnerable to attack.

Critical Data Element Declared Public

The software declares a critical variable, field, or member to be public when intended security policy requires it to be private.

Critical Public Variable Without Final Modifier

The product has a critical public variable that is not final, which allows the variable to be modified to contain unexpected values.

Cryptographic Operations are run Before Supporting Units are Ready

Performing cryptographic operations without ensuring that the supporting inputs are ready to supply valid data may compromise the cryptographic result.

Dangerous Signal Handler not Disabled During Sensitive Operations

The application uses a signal handler that shares state with other signal handlers, but it does not properly mask or prevent those signal handlers from being invoked w...

Dangling Database Cursor ('Cursor Injection')

If a database cursor is not closed properly, then it could become accessible to other users while retaining the same privileges that were originally assigned, leaving ...

Dead Code

The software contains dead code, which can never be executed.

Debug Messages Revealing Unnecessary Information

The product fails to adequately prevent the revealing of unnecessary and potentially sensitive system information within debugging messages.

Declaration of Catch for Generic Exception

Catching overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.

Declaration of Throws for Generic Exception

Throwing overly broad exceptions promotes complex error handling code that is more likely to contain security vulnerabilities.

Deletion of Data Structure Sentinel

The accidental deletion of a data-structure sentinel can cause serious programming logic problems.

Deployment of Wrong Handler

The wrong "handler" is assigned to process an object.

Deserialization of Untrusted Data

The application deserializes untrusted data without sufficiently verifying that the resulting data will be valid.

Detection of Error Condition Without Action

The software detects a specific error, but takes no actions to handle the error.

Direct Request ('Forced Browsing')

The web application does not adequately enforce appropriate authorization on all restricted URLs, scripts, or files.

Direct Use of Unsafe JNI

When a Java application uses the Java Native Interface (JNI) to call code written in another programming language, it can expose the application to weaknesses in that ...

Divide By Zero

The product divides a value by zero.

Double Decoding of the Same Data

The software decodes the same input twice, which can limit the effectiveness of any protection mechanism that occurs in between the decoding operations.

Double Free

The product calls free() twice on the same memory address, potentially leading to modification of unexpected memory locations.

Double-Checked Locking

The program uses double-checked locking to access a resource without the overhead of explicit synchronization, but the locking is insufficient.

Doubled Character XSS Manipulations

The web application does not filter user-controlled input for executable script disguised using doubling of the involved characters.

Download of Code Without Integrity Check

The product downloads source code or an executable from a remote location and executes the code without sufficiently verifying the origin and integrity of the code.

Duplicate Key in Associative List (Alist)

Duplicate keys in associative lists can lead to non-unique keys being mistaken for an error.

Duplicate Operations on Resource

The product performs the same operation on a resource two or more times, when the operation should only be applied once.

Dynamic Variable Evaluation

In a language where the user can influence the name of a variable at runtime, if the variable names are not controlled, an attacker can read or write to arbitrary vari...

EJB Bad Practices: Use of AWT Swing

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using AWT/Swing.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Class Loader

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the class loader.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Java I/O

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using the java.io package.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Sockets

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using sockets.

EJB Bad Practices: Use of Synchronization Primitives

The program violates the Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) specification by using thread synchronization primitives.

Embedded Malicious Code

The application contains code that appears to be malicious in nature.

Empty Password in Configuration File

Using an empty string as a password is insecure.

Empty Synchronized Block

The software contains an empty synchronized block.

Encoding Error

The software does not properly encode or decode the data, resulting in unexpected values.

Executable Regular Expression Error

The product uses a regular expression that either (1) contains an executable component with user-controlled inputs, or (2) allows a user to enable execution by inserti...

Execution After Redirect (EAR)

The web application sends a redirect to another location, but instead of exiting, it executes additional code.

Execution with Unnecessary Privileges

The software performs an operation at a privilege level that is higher than the minimum level required, which creates new weaknesses or amplifies the consequences of o...

Expected Behavior Violation

A feature, API, or function does not perform according to its specification.

Explicit Call to Finalize()

The software makes an explicit call to the finalize() method from outside the finalizer.

Exposed Chip Debug and Test Interface With Insufficient or Missing Authorization

The chip does not implement or does not correctly check whether users are authorized to access internal registers.

Exposed Dangerous Method or Function

The software provides an Applications Programming Interface (API) or similar interface for interaction with external actors, but the interface includes a dangerous met...

Exposed IOCTL with Insufficient Access Control

The software implements an IOCTL with functionality that should be restricted, but it does not properly enforce access control for the IOCTL.

Exposed Unsafe ActiveX Method

An ActiveX control is intended for use in a web browser, but it exposes dangerous methods that perform actions that are outside of the browser's security model (e.g. t...

Exposure of Data Element to Wrong Session

The product does not sufficiently enforce boundaries between the states of different sessions, causing data to be provided to, or used by, the wrong session.

Exposure of File Descriptor to Unintended Control Sphere ('File Descriptor Leak')

A process does not close sensitive file descriptors before invoking a child process, which allows the child to perform unauthorized I/O operations using those descript...

Exposure of Information Through Directory Listing

A directory listing is inappropriately exposed, yielding potentially sensitive information to attackers.

Exposure of Information Through Shell Error Message

A command shell error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in the web application code. In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions th...

Exposure of Private Personal Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product does not properly prevent a person's private, personal information from being accessed by actors who either (1) are not explicitly authorized to access the...

Exposure of Resource to Wrong Sphere

The product exposes a resource to the wrong control sphere, providing unintended actors with inappropriate access to the resource.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Due to Incompatible Policies

The product's intended functionality exposes information to certain actors in accordance with the developer's security policy, but this information is regarded as sens...

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Data Queries

When trying to keep information confidential, an attacker can often infer some of the information by using statistics.

Exposure of Sensitive Information Through Environmental Variables

Environmental variables may contain sensitive information about a remote server.

Exposure of Sensitive Information to an Unauthorized Actor

The product exposes sensitive information to an actor that is not explicitly authorized to have access to that information.

Exposure of Sensitive System Information Due to Uncleared Debug Information

The hardware does not fully clear security-sensitive values, such as keys and intermediate values in cryptographic operations, when debug mode is entered.

Exposure of Sensitive System Information to an Unauthorized Control Sphere

The application does not properly prevent sensitive system-level information from being accessed by unauthorized actors who do not have the same level of access to the...

Exposure of WSDL File Containing Sensitive Information

The Web services architecture may require exposing a Web Service Definition Language (WSDL) file that contains information on the publicly accessible services and how ...

Expression is Always False

The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to false.

Expression is Always True

The software contains an expression that will always evaluate to true.

External Control of Assumed-Immutable Web Parameter

The web application does not sufficiently verify inputs that are assumed to be immutable but are actually externally controllable, such as hidden form fields.

External Control of Critical State Data

The software stores security-critical state information about its users, or the software itself, in a location that is accessible to unauthorized actors.

External Control of File Name or Path

The software allows user input to control or influence paths or file names that are used in filesystem operations.

External Control of System or Configuration Setting

One or more system settings or configuration elements can be externally controlled by a user.

External Influence of Sphere Definition

The product does not prevent the definition of control spheres from external actors.

External Initialization of Trusted Variables or Data Stores

The software initializes critical internal variables or data stores using inputs that can be modified by untrusted actors.

Externally-Generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The application performs an operation that triggers an external diagnostic or error message that is not directly generated or controlled by the application, such as an...

Fabric-Address Map Allows Programming of Unwarranted Overlaps of Protected and Unprotected Ranges

The address map of the on-chip fabric has protected and unprotected regions overlapping, allowing an attacker to bypass access control to the overlapping portion of th...

Failure to Disable Reserved Bits

The reserved bits in a hardware design are not disabled prior to production. Typically, reserved bits are used for future capabilities and should not support any funct...

Failure to Handle Incomplete Element

The software does not properly handle when a particular element is not completely specified.

Failure to Handle Missing Parameter

If too few arguments are sent to a function, the function will still pop the expected number of arguments from the stack. Potentially, a variable number of arguments c...

Failure to Sanitize Paired Delimiters

The software does not properly handle the characters that are used to mark the beginning and ending of a group of entities, such as parentheses, brackets, and braces.

Failure to Sanitize Special Elements into a Different Plane (Special Element Injection)

The software does not adequately filter user-controlled input for special elements with control implications.

Files or Directories Accessible to External Parties

The product makes files or directories accessible to unauthorized actors, even though they should not be.

finalize() Method Declared Public

The program violates secure coding principles for mobile code by declaring a finalize() method public.

finalize() Method Without super.finalize()

The software contains a finalize() method that does not call super.finalize().

Firmware Not Updateable

A product's firmware cannot be updated or patched, leaving weaknesses present with no means of repair and the product vulnerable to attack.

Free of Memory not on the Heap

The application calls free() on a pointer to memory that was not allocated using associated heap allocation functions such as malloc(), calloc(), or realloc().

Free of Pointer not at Start of Buffer

The application calls free() on a pointer to a memory resource that was allocated on the heap, but the pointer is not at the start of the buffer.

Function Call With Incorrect Argument Type

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that is the wrong data type, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.

Function Call With Incorrect Number of Arguments

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies too many arguments, or too few arguments, which may lead to undefined behavior and resul...

Function Call With Incorrect Order of Arguments

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the arguments in an incorrect order, leading to resultant weaknesses.

Function Call With Incorrect Variable or Reference as Argument

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies the wrong variable or reference as one of the arguments, which may lead to undefined beh...

Function Call With Incorrectly Specified Argument Value

The software calls a function, procedure, or routine, but the caller specifies an argument that contains the wrong value, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.

Function Call with Incorrectly Specified Arguments

The product calls a function, procedure, or routine with arguments that are not correctly specified, leading to always-incorrect behavior and resultant weaknesses.

Generation of Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The software generates an error message that includes sensitive information about its environment, users, or associated data.

Generation of Incorrect Security Tokens

The product implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. However, the Se...

Generation of Predictable IV with CBC Mode

The product generates and uses a predictable initialization Vector (IV) with Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) Mode, which causes algorithms to be susceptible to dictionary ...

Generation of Predictable Numbers or Identifiers

The product uses a scheme that generates numbers or identifiers that are more predictable than required.

Generation of Weak Initialization Vector (IV)

The product uses a cryptographic primitive that uses an Initialization Vector (IV), but the product does not generate IVs that are sufficiently unpredictable or ...

Guessable CAPTCHA

The software uses a CAPTCHA challenge, but the challenge can be guessed or automatically recognized by a non-human actor.

Hardware Allows Activation of Test or Debug Logic at Runtime

During runtime, the hardware allows for test or debug logic (feature) to be activated, which allows for changing the state of the hardware. This feature can alter the ...

Hardware Child Block Incorrectly Connected to Parent System

Signals between a hardware IP and the parent system design are incorrectly connected causing security risks.

Hardware Features Enable Physical Attacks from Software

Software-controllable device functionality such as power and clock management permits unauthorized modification of memory or register bits.

Hardware Internal or Debug Modes Allow Override of Locks

System configuration protection may be bypassed during debug mode.

Hardware Logic Contains Race Conditions

A race condition in the hardware logic results in undermining security guarantees of the system.

Hardware Logic with Insecure De-Synchronization between Control and Data Channels

The hardware logic for error handling and security checks can incorrectly forward data before the security check is complete.

Heap-based Buffer Overflow

A heap overflow condition is a buffer overflow, where the buffer that can be overwritten is allocated in the heap portion of memory, generally meaning that the buffer ...

Hidden Functionality

The software contains functionality that is not documented, not part of the specification, and not accessible through an interface or command sequence that is obvious ...

Improper Access Control

The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts access to a resource from an unauthorized actor.

Improper Access Control Applied to Mirrored or Aliased Memory Regions

Aliased or mirrored memory regions in hardware designs may have inconsistent read/write permissions enforced by the hardware. A possible result is that an untrusted ag...

Improper Access to Sensitive Information Using Debug and Test Interfaces

The product's physical debug and test interface protection does not block untrusted agents, resulting in unauthorized access to and potentially control of sensitive as...

Improper Address Validation in IOCTL with METHOD_NEITHER I/O Control Code

The software defines an IOCTL that uses METHOD_NEITHER for I/O, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates the addresses that are provided.

Improper Adherence to Coding Standards

The software does not follow certain coding rules for development, which can lead to resultant weaknesses or increase the severity of the associated vulnerabilities.

Improper Authentication

When an actor claims to have a given identity, the software does not prove or insufficiently proves that the claim is correct.

Improper Authorization

The software does not perform or incorrectly performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.

Improper Authorization in Handler for Custom URL Scheme

The software uses a handler for a custom URL scheme, but it does not properly restrict which actors can invoke the handler using the scheme.

Improper Authorization of Index Containing Sensitive Information

The product creates a search index of private or sensitive documents, but it does not properly limit index access to actors who are authorized to see the original info...

Improper Certificate Validation

The software does not validate, or incorrectly validates, a certificate.

Improper Check for Certificate Revocation

The software does not check or incorrectly checks the revocation status of a certificate, which may cause it to use a certificate that has been compromised.

Improper Check for Dropped Privileges

The software attempts to drop privileges but does not check or incorrectly checks to see if the drop succeeded.

Improper Check for Unusual or Exceptional Conditions

The software does not check or incorrectly checks for unusual or exceptional conditions that are not expected to occur frequently during day to day operation of the so...

Improper Check or Handling of Exceptional Conditions

The software does not properly anticipate or handle exceptional conditions that rarely occur during normal operation of the software.

Improper Cleanup on Thrown Exception

The product does not clean up its state or incorrectly cleans up its state when an exception is thrown, leading to unexpected state or control flow.

Improper Clearing of Heap Memory Before Release ('Heap Inspection')

Using realloc() to resize buffers that store sensitive information can leave the sensitive information exposed to attack, because it is not removed from memory.

Improper Control of a Resource Through its Lifetime

The software does not maintain or incorrectly maintains control over a resource throughout its lifetime of creation, use, and release.

Improper Control of Document Type Definition

The software does not restrict a reference to a Document Type Definition (DTD) to the intended control sphere. This might allow attackers to reference arbitrary DTDs, ...

Improper Control of Dynamically-Identified Variables

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-identified variables.

Improper Control of Dynamically-Managed Code Resources

The software does not properly restrict reading from or writing to dynamically-managed code resources such as variables, objects, classes, attributes, functions, or ex...

Improper Control of Filename for Include/Require Statement in PHP Program ('PHP Remote File Inclusion')

The PHP application receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before its usage in "require," "include," or...

Improper Control of Generation of Code ('Code Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a code segment using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutraliz...

Improper Control of Interaction Frequency

The software does not properly limit the number or frequency of interactions that it has with an actor, such as the number of incoming requests.

Improper Control of Resource Identifiers ('Resource Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the input before it is used as an identifier for a resource t...

Improper Encoding or Escaping of Output

The software prepares a structured message for communication with another component, but encoding or escaping of the data is either missing or done incorrectly. As a r...

Improper Enforcement of Behavioral Workflow

The software supports a session in which more than one behavior must be performed by an actor, but it does not properly ensure that the actor performs the behaviors in...

Improper Filtering of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter or incorrectly filters special elements before sending it to a downstream component.

Improper Finite State Machines (FSMs) in Hardware Logic

Faulty finite state machines (FSMs) in the hardware logic allow an attacker to put the system in an undefined state, to cause a denial of service (DoS) or gain privile...

Improper Following of a Certificate's Chain of Trust

The software does not follow, or incorrectly follows, the chain of trust for a certificate back to a trusted root certificate, resulting in incorrect trust of any reso...

Improper Following of Specification by Caller

The software does not follow or incorrectly follows the specifications as required by the implementation language, environment, framework, protocol, or platform.

Improper Handling of Additional Special Element

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an additional unexpected special element is provided.

Improper Handling of Alternate Encoding

The software does not properly handle when an input uses an alternate encoding that is valid for the control sphere to which the input is being sent.

Improper Handling of Apple HFS+ Alternate Data Stream Path

The software does not properly handle special paths that may identify the data or resource fork of a file on the HFS+ file system.

Improper Handling of Case Sensitivity

The software does not properly account for differences in case sensitivity when accessing or determining the properties of a resource, leading to inconsistent results.

Improper Handling of Exceptional Conditions

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles an exceptional condition.

Improper Handling of Extra Parameters

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when the number of parameters, fields, or arguments with the same name exceeds the expected amount.

Improper Handling of Extra Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when more values are provided than expected.

Improper Handling of File Names that Identify Virtual Resources

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles a file name that identifies a "virtual" resource that is not directly specified within the directory that is associa...

Improper Handling of Hardware Behavior in Exceptionally Cold Environments

A hardware device, or the firmware running on it, is missing or has incorrect protection features to maintain goals of security primiti...

Improper Handling of Highly Compressed Data (Data Amplification)

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles a compressed input with a very high compression ratio that produces a large output.

Improper Handling of Incomplete Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular structural element is not completely specified.

Improper Handling of Inconsistent Special Elements

The software does not properly handle input in which an inconsistency exists between two or more special characters or reserved words.

Improper Handling of Inconsistent Structural Elements

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when two or more structural elements should be consistent, but are not.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Entropy in TRNG

True random number generators (TRNG) generally have a limited source of entropy and therefore can fail or block.

Improper Handling of Insufficient Permissions or Privileges

The application does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to access resources or functionality as specified by their permissions. This...

Improper Handling of Insufficient Privileges

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when it has insufficient privileges to perform an operation, leading to resultant weaknesses.

Improper Handling of Invalid Use of Special Elements

The product does not properly filter, remove, quote, or otherwise manage the invalid use of special elements in user-controlled input, which could cause adverse effect...

Improper Handling of Length Parameter Inconsistency

The software parses a formatted message or structure, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a length field that is inconsistent with the actual length of the a...

Improper Handling of Missing Special Element

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles when an expected special element is missing.

Improper Handling of Missing Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a parameter, field, or argument name is specified, but the associated value is missing, i.e. it is empty, blan...

Improper Handling of Mixed Encoding

The software does not properly handle when the same input uses several different (mixed) encodings.

Improper Handling of Overlap Between Protected Memory Ranges

The product allows address regions to overlap, which can result in the bypassing of intended memory protection.

Improper Handling of Parameters

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those parameters are undefined.

Improper Handling of Single Event Upsets

The hardware logic does not effectively handle when single-event upsets (SEUs) occur.

Improper Handling of Syntactically Invalid Structure

The product does not handle or incorrectly handles input that is not syntactically well-formed with respect to the associated specification.

Improper Handling of Undefined Parameters

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular parameter, field, or argument name is not defined or supported by the product.

Improper Handling of Undefined Values

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a value is not defined or supported for the associated parameter, field, or argument name.

Improper Handling of Unexpected Data Type

The software does not handle or incorrectly handles when a particular element is not the expected type, e.g. it expects a digit (0-9) but is provided with a letter (A-Z).

Improper Handling of Unicode Encoding

The software does not properly handle when an input contains Unicode encoding.

Improper Handling of URL Encoding (Hex Encoding)

The software does not properly handle when all or part of an input has been URL encoded.

Improper Handling of Values

The software does not properly handle when the expected number of values for parameters, fields, or arguments is not provided in input, or if those values are undefined.

Improper Handling of Windows ::DATA Alternate Data Stream

The software does not properly prevent access to, or detect usage of, alternate data streams (ADS).

Improper Handling of Windows Device Names

The software constructs pathnames from user input, but it does not handle or incorrectly handles a pathname containing a Windows device name such as AUX or CON. This t...

Improper Hardware Lock Protection for Security Sensitive Controls

The product implements a register lock bit protection feature that permits security sensitive controls to modify the protected configuration.

Improper Implementation of Lock Protection Registers

The product incorrectly implements register lock bit protection features such that protected controls can be programmed even after the lock has been set.

Improper Initialization

The software does not initialize or incorrectly initializes a resource, which might leave the resource in an unexpected state when it is accessed or used.

Improper Input Validation

The product receives input or data, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input has the properties that are required to process th...

Improper Interaction Between Multiple Correctly-Behaving Entities

An interaction error occurs when two entities have correct behavior when running independently of each other, but when they are integrated as components in a larger sy...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources in Network On Chip

The product does not isolate or incorrectly isolates its on-chip-fabric and internal resources such that they are shared between trusted and untrusted agents, creating...

Improper Isolation of Shared Resources on System-on-a-Chip (SoC)

The product does not properly isolate shared resources between trusted and untrusted agents.

Improper Limitation of a Pathname to a Restricted Directory ('Path Traversal')

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that is intended to identify a file or directory that is located underneath a restricted parent directory, but...

Improper Link Resolution Before File Access ('Link Following')

The software attempts to access a file based on the filename, but it does not properly prevent that filename from identifying a link or shortcut that resolves to an un...

Improper Lock Behavior After Power State Transition

Register lock bit protection disables changes to system configuration once the bit is set. Some of the protected registers or lock bits become programmable after power...

Improper Locking

The software does not properly acquire or release a lock on a resource, leading to unexpected resource state changes and behaviors.

Improper Management of Sensitive Trace Data

Trace data collected from several sources on the System-on-Chip (SoC) is stored in unprotected locations or transported to untrusted ag...

Improper Neutralization

The product does not ensure or incorrectly ensures that structured messages or data are well-formed and that certain security properties are met before being read from...

Improper Neutralization of Alternate XSS Syntax

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controlled input for alternate script syntax.

Improper Neutralization of Argument Delimiters in a Command ('Argument Injection')

The software constructs a string for a command to executed by a separate component in another control sphere, but it does not properly delimit the intended arguments, ...

Improper Neutralization of Comment Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as comment del...

Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences ('CRLF Injection')

The software uses CRLF (carriage return line feeds) as a special element, e.g. to separate lines or records, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CRLF...

Improper Neutralization of CRLF Sequences in HTTP Headers ('HTTP Response Splitting')

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes CR and LF characters before the data is included in outgoing ...

Improper Neutralization of Data within XPath Expressions ('XPath Injection')

The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XPath expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neu...

Improper Neutralization of Data within XQuery Expressions ('XQuery Injection')

The software uses external input to dynamically construct an XQuery expression used to retrieve data from an XML database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly ne...

Improper Neutralization of Delimiters

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes delimiters.

Improper Neutralization of Directives in Dynamically Evaluated Code ('Eval Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before using the input in a dynamic evaluatio...

Improper Neutralization of Directives in Statically Saved Code ('Static Code Injection')

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes code syntax before inserting the input into an executable...

Improper Neutralization of Encoded URI Schemes in a Web Page

The web application improperly neutralizes user-controlled input for executable script disguised with URI encodings.

Improper Neutralization of Equivalent Special Elements

The software properly neutralizes certain special elements, but it improperly neutralizes equivalent special elements.

Improper Neutralization of Escape, Meta, or Control Sequences

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as escape, met...

Improper Neutralization of Expression/Command Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as expression ...

Improper Neutralization of Formula Elements in a CSV File

The software saves user-provided information into a Comma-Separated Value (CSV) file, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could...

Improper Neutralization of HTTP Headers for Scripting Syntax

The application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes web scripting syntax in HTTP headers that can be used by web browser components that can process raw hea...

Improper Neutralization of Input During Web Page Generation ('Cross-site Scripting')

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input before it is placed in output that is used as a web page that is served to other us...

Improper Neutralization of Input Leaders

The application does not properly handle when a leading character or sequence ("leader") is missing or malformed, or if multiple leaders are used when only one should ...

Improper Neutralization of Input Terminators

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as input termi...

Improper Neutralization of Internal Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes internal special elements that could be interpreted in un...

Improper Neutralization of Invalid Characters in Identifiers in Web Pages

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes invalid characters or byte sequences in the middle of tag names, URI schemes, and other identifiers.

Improper Neutralization of Leading Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes leading special elements that could be interpreted in une...

Improper Neutralization of Line Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as line delimi...

Improper Neutralization of Macro Symbols

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as macro symbo...

Improper Neutralization of Multiple Internal Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple internal special elements that could be interpre...

Improper Neutralization of Multiple Leading Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple leading special elements that could be interpret...

Improper Neutralization of Multiple Trailing Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes multiple trailing special elements that could be interpre...

Improper Neutralization of Null Byte or NUL Character

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes NUL characters or null bytes when they are sent to a down...

Improper Neutralization of Parameter/Argument Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as parameter o...

Improper Neutralization of Quoting Syntax

Quotes injected into an application can be used to compromise a system. As data are parsed, an injected/absent/duplicate/malformed use of quotes may cause the process ...

Improper Neutralization of Record Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as record deli...

Improper Neutralization of Script in an Error Message Web Page

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters that could be interpreted as web-scrip...

Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes in a Web Page

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes "javascript:" or other URIs from dangerous attributes within tags, such as onmouseover, onload, onerror, or...

Improper Neutralization of Script in Attributes of IMG Tags in a Web Page

The web application does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes scripting elements within attributes of HTML IMG tags, such as the src attribute.

Improper Neutralization of Script-Related HTML Tags in a Web Page (Basic XSS)

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special characters such as "<", ">", and "&" that could b...

Improper Neutralization of Section Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as section del...

Improper Neutralization of Server-Side Includes (SSI) Within a Web Page

The software generates a web page, but does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes user-controllable input that could be interpreted as a server-side include (SSI) ...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as control ele...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Data Query Logic

The application generates a query intended to access or manipulate data in a data store such as a database, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes speci...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements in Output Used by a Downstream Component ('Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a command, data structure, or record using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in a Command ('Command Injection')

The software constructs all or part of a command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes sp...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements Used in a Template Engine

The product uses a template engine to insert or process externally-influenced input, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements or syntax t...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an Expression Language Statement ('Expression Language Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an expression language (EL) statement in a Java Server Page (JSP) using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, ...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an LDAP Query ('LDAP Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an LDAP query using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralize...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an OS Command ('OS Command Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an OS command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralize...

Improper Neutralization of Special Elements used in an SQL Command ('SQL Injection')

The software constructs all or part of an SQL command using externally-influenced input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutraliz...

Improper Neutralization of Substitution Characters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as substitutio...

Improper Neutralization of Trailing Special Elements

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes trailing special elements that could be interpreted in un...

Improper Neutralization of Value Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as value delim...

Improper Neutralization of Variable Name Delimiters

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as variable na...

Improper Neutralization of Whitespace

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as whitespace ...

Improper Neutralization of Wildcards or Matching Symbols

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes special elements that could be interpreted as wildcards o...

Improper Null Termination

The software does not terminate or incorrectly terminates a string or array with a null character or equivalent terminator.

Improper Output Neutralization for Logs

The software does not neutralize or incorrectly neutralizes output that is written to logs.

Improper Preservation of Permissions

The software does not preserve permissions or incorrectly preserves permissions when copying, restoring, or sharing objects, which can cause them to have less restrict...

Improper Privilege Management

The software does not properly assign, modify, track, or check privileges for an actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Improper Protection against Electromagnetic Fault Injection (EM-FI)

The device is susceptible to electromagnetic fault injection attacks, causing device internal information to be compromised or security mechanisms to be bypassed.

Improper Protection Against Physical Side Channels

The product is missing protections or implements insufficient protections against information leakage through physical channels such as power consumption, electromagne...

Improper Protection for Out of Bounds Signal Level Alerts

Untrusted agents can disable alerts about signal conditions exceeding limits or the response mechanism that handles such alerts.

Improper Protections Against Hardware Overheating

A hardware device is missing or has inadequate protection features to prevent overheating.

Improper Removal of Sensitive Information Before Storage or Transfer

The product stores, transfers, or shares a resource that contains sensitive information, but it does not properly remove that information before the product makes the ...

Improper Resolution of Path Equivalence

The system or application is vulnerable to file system contents disclosure through path equivalence. Path equivalence involves the use of special characters in file an...

Improper Resource Locking

The software does not lock or does not correctly lock a resource when the software must have exclusive access to the resource.

Improper Resource Shutdown or Release

The program does not release or incorrectly releases a resource before it is made available for re-use.

Improper Restriction of Names for Files and Other Resources

The application constructs the name of a file or other resource using input from an upstream component, but it does not restrict or incorrectly restricts the resulting...

Improper Restriction of Operations within the Bounds of a Memory Buffer

The software performs operations on a memory buffer, but it can read from or write to a memory location that is outside of the intended boundary of the buffer.

Improper Restriction of Recursive Entity References in DTDs ('XML Entity Expansion')

The software uses XML documents and allows their structure to be defined with a Document Type Definition (DTD), but it does not properly control the number of recursiv...

Improper Restriction of Rendered UI Layers or Frames

The web application does not restrict or incorrectly restricts frame objects or UI layers that belong to another application or domain, which can lead to user confusio...

Improper Restriction of Security Token Assignment

The System-On-A-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Token mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. ...

Improper Restriction of Write-Once Bit Fields

The hardware design control register "sticky bits" or write-once bit fields are improperly implemented, such that they can be reprogrammed by software.

Improper Restriction of XML External Entity Reference

The software processes an XML document that can contain XML entities with URIs that resolve to documents outside of the intended sphere of control, causing the product...

Improper Scrubbing of Sensitive Data from Decommissioned Device

The product does not properly provide a capability for the product administrator to remove sensitive data at the time the product is decommissioned. A scrubbing capab...

Improper Setting of Bus Controlling Capability in Fabric End-point

The bus controller enables bits in the fabric end-point to allow responder devices to control transactions on the fabric.

Improper Synchronization

The software utilizes multiple threads or processes to allow temporary access to a shared resource that can only be exclusive to one process at a time, but it does not...

Improper Translation of Security Attributes by Fabric Bridge

The bridge incorrectly translates security attributes from either trusted to untrusted or from untrusted to trusted when converting from one fabric protocol to another.

Improper Update of Reference Count

The software uses a reference count to manage a resource, but it does not update or incorrectly updates the reference count.

Improper Use of Validation Framework

The application does not use, or incorrectly uses, an input validation framework that is provided by the source language or an independent library.

Improper Validation of Array Index

The product uses untrusted input when calculating or using an array index, but the product does not validate or incorrectly validates the index to ensure the index ref...

Improper Validation of Certificate Expiration

A certificate expiration is not validated or is incorrectly validated, so trust may be assigned to certificates that have been abandoned due to age.

Improper Validation of Certificate with Host Mismatch

The software communicates with a host that provides a certificate, but the software does not properly ensure that the certificate is actually associated with that host.

Improper Validation of Consistency within Input

The product receives a complex input with multiple elements or fields that must be consistent with each other, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that t...

Improper Validation of Function Hook Arguments

The product adds hooks to user-accessible API functions, but it does not properly validate the arguments. This could lead to resultant vulnerabilities.

Improper Validation of Integrity Check Value

The software does not validate or incorrectly validates the integrity check values or "checksums" of a message. This may prevent it from detecting if the data has been...

Improper Validation of Specified Index, Position, or Offset in Input

The product receives input that is expected to specify an index, position, or offset into an indexable resource such as a buffer or file, but it does not validate or i...

Improper Validation of Specified Quantity in Input

The product receives input that is expected to specify a quantity (such as size or length), but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the quantity has the...

Improper Validation of Specified Type of Input

The product receives input that is expected to be of a certain type, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input is actually of the expected type.

Improper Validation of Syntactic Correctness of Input

The product receives input that is expected to be well-formed - i.e., to comply with a certain syntax - but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the inpu...

Improper Validation of Unsafe Equivalence in Input

The product receives an input value that is used as a resource identifier or other type of reference, but it does not validate or incorrectly validates that the input ...

Improper Verification of Cryptographic Signature

The software does not verify, or incorrectly verifies, the cryptographic signature for data.

Improper Verification of Source of a Communication Channel

The software establishes a communication channel to handle an incoming request that has been initiated by an actor, but it does not properly verify that the request is...

Improper Write Handling in Limited-write Non-Volatile Memories

The product does not implement or incorrectly implements wear leveling operations in limited-write non-volatile memories.

Improper Zeroization of Hardware Register

The hardware product does not properly clear sensitive information from built-in registers when the user of the hardware block changes.

Improperly Controlled Modification of Dynamically-Determined Object Attributes

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies multiple attributes, properties, or fields that are to be initialized or updated in an object, bu...

Improperly Controlled Modification of Object Prototype Attributes ('Prototype Pollution')

The software receives input from an upstream component that specifies attributes that are to be initialized or updated in an object, but it does not properly control m...

Improperly Controlled Sequential Memory Allocation

The product manages a group of objects or resources and performs a separate memory allocation for each object, but it does not properly limit the total amount of memor...

Improperly Implemented Security Check for Standard

The software does not implement or incorrectly implements one or more security-relevant checks as specified by the design of a standardized algorithm, protocol, or tec...

Inclusion of Functionality from Untrusted Control Sphere

The software imports, requires, or includes executable functionality (such as a library) from a source that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in an Include File

If an include file source is accessible, the file can contain usernames and passwords, as well as sensitive information pertaining to the application and system.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code

Source code on a web server or repository often contains sensitive information and should generally not be accessible to users.

Inclusion of Sensitive Information in Source Code Comments

While adding general comments is very useful, some programmers tend to leave important data, such as: filenames related to the web application, old links or links whic...

Inclusion of Undocumented Features or Chicken Bits

The device includes chicken bits or undocumented features that can create entry points for unauthorized actors.

Inclusion of Web Functionality from an Untrusted Source

The software includes web functionality (such as a web widget) from another domain, which causes it to operate within the domain of the software, potentially granting ...

Incomplete Cleanup

The software does not properly "clean up" and remove temporary or supporting resources after they have been used.

Incomplete Comparison with Missing Factors

The software performs a comparison between entities that must consider multiple factors or characteristics of each entity, but the comparison does not include one or m...

Incomplete Filtering of Multiple Instances of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not filter all instances of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.

Incomplete Filtering of One or More Instances of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter one or more instances of special elements before sending it to a downstream compo...

Incomplete Filtering of Special Elements

The software receives data from an upstream component, but does not completely filter special elements before sending it to a downstream component.

Incomplete Identification of Uploaded File Variables (PHP)

The PHP application uses an old method for processing uploaded files by referencing the four global variables that are set for each file (e.g. $varname, $varname_size,...

Incomplete Internal State Distinction

The software does not properly determine which state it is in, causing it to assume it is in state X when in fact it is in state Y, causing it to perform incorrect ope...

Incomplete List of Disallowed Inputs

The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are not allowed by policy or otherwise require other actio...

Incomplete Model of Endpoint Features

A product acts as an intermediary or monitor between two or more endpoints, but it does not have a complete model of an endpoint's features, behaviors, or state, poten...

Inconsistency Between Implementation and Documented Design

The implementation of the product is not consistent with the design as described within the relevant documentation.

Inconsistent Interpretation of HTTP Requests ('HTTP Request Smuggling')

When malformed or abnormal HTTP requests are interpreted by one or more entities in the data flow between the user and the web server, such as a proxy or firewall, the...

Incorrect Access of Indexable Resource ('Range Error')

The software does not restrict or incorrectly restricts operations within the boundaries of a resource that is accessed using an index or pointer, such as memory or fi...

Incorrect Authorization

The software performs an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action, but it does not correctly perform the check. This allows...

Incorrect Behavior Order

The product performs multiple related behaviors, but the behaviors are performed in the wrong order in ways which may produce resultant weaknesses.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Authorization Before Parsing and Canonicalization

If a web server does not fully parse requested URLs before it examines them for authorization, it may be possible for an attacker to bypass authorization protection.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Amplification

The software allows an entity to perform a legitimate but expensive operation before authentication or authorization has taken place.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Early Validation

The software validates input before applying protection mechanisms that modify the input, which could allow an attacker to bypass the validation via dangerous inputs t...

Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Canonicalize

The software validates input before it is canonicalized, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the canonicalization step.

Incorrect Behavior Order: Validate Before Filter

The software validates data before it has been filtered, which prevents the software from detecting data that becomes invalid after the filtering step.

Incorrect Bitwise Shift of Integer

An integer value is specified to be shifted by a negative amount or an amount greater than or equal to the number of bits contained in the value causing an unexpected ...

Incorrect Block Delimitation

The code does not explicitly delimit a block that is intended to contain 2 or more statements, creating a logic error.

Incorrect Calculation

The software performs a calculation that generates incorrect or unintended results that are later used in security-critical decisions or resource management.

Incorrect Calculation of Buffer Size

The software does not correctly calculate the size to be used when allocating a buffer, which could lead to a buffer overflow.

Incorrect Calculation of Multi-Byte String Length

The software does not correctly calculate the length of strings that can contain wide or multi-byte characters.

Incorrect Chaining or Granularity of Debug Components

The product's debug components contain incorrect chaining or granularity of debug components.

Incorrect Check of Function Return Value

The software incorrectly checks a return value from a function, which prevents the software from detecting errors or exceptional conditions.

Incorrect Comparison

The software compares two entities in a security-relevant context, but the comparison is incorrect, which may lead to resultant weaknesses.

Incorrect Comparison Logic Granularity

The product's comparison logic is performed over a series of steps rather than across the entire string in one operation. If there is a comparison logic failure on one...

Incorrect Control Flow Scoping

The software does not properly return control flow to the proper location after it has completed a task or detected an unusual condition.

Incorrect Conversion between Numeric Types

When converting from one data type to another, such as long to integer, data can be omitted or translated in a way that produces unexpected values. If the resulting va...

Incorrect Conversion of Security Identifiers

The product implements a conversion mechanism to map certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. However, if the conversion is incorrectly implemented, un...

Incorrect Decoding of Security Identifiers

The product implements a decoding mechanism to decode certain bus-transaction signals to security identifiers. If the decoding is implemented incorrectly, then untrust...

Incorrect Default Permissions

During installation, installed file permissions are set to allow anyone to modify those files.

Incorrect Execution-Assigned Permissions

While it is executing, the software sets the permissions of an object in a way that violates the intended permissions that have been specified by the user.

Incorrect Implementation of Authentication Algorithm

The requirements for the software dictate the use of an established authentication algorithm, but the implementation of the algorithm is incorrect.

Incorrect Ownership Assignment

The software assigns an owner to a resource, but the owner is outside of the intended control sphere.

Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource

The product specifies permissions for a security-critical resource in a way that allows that resource to be read or modified by unintended actors.

Incorrect Pointer Scaling

In C and C++, one may often accidentally refer to the wrong memory due to the semantics of when math operations are implicitly scaled.

Incorrect Privilege Assignment

A product incorrectly assigns a privilege to a particular actor, creating an unintended sphere of control for that actor.

Incorrect Provision of Specified Functionality

The code does not function according to its published specifications, potentially leading to incorrect usage.

Incorrect Register Defaults or Module Parameters

Hardware description language code incorrectly defines register defaults or hardware IP parameters to insecure values.

Incorrect Regular Expression

The software specifies a regular expression in a way that causes data to be improperly matched or compared.

Incorrect Resource Transfer Between Spheres

The product does not properly transfer a resource/behavior to another sphere, or improperly imports a resource/behavior from another sphere, in a manner that provides ...

Incorrect Selection of Fuse Values

The logic level used to set a system to a secure state relies on a fuse being unblown. An attacker can set the system to an insecure state merely by blowing the fuse.

Incorrect Short Circuit Evaluation

The software contains a conditional statement with multiple logical expressions in which one of the non-leading expressions may produce side effects. This may lead to ...

Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast

The software does not correctly convert an object, resource, or structure from one type to a different type.

Incorrect Usage of Seeds in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The software uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) but does not correctly manage seeds.

Incorrect Use of Autoboxing and Unboxing for Performance Critical Operations

The code uses boxed primitives, which may introduce inefficiencies into performance-critical operations.

Incorrect Use of Privileged APIs

The application does not conform to the API requirements for a function call that requires extra privileges. This could allow attackers to gain privileges by causing t...

Incorrect User Management

The software does not properly manage a user within its environment.

Incorrectly Specified Destination in a Communication Channel

The software creates a communication channel to initiate an outgoing request to an actor, but it does not correctly specify the intended destination for that actor.

Inefficient Algorithmic Complexity

An algorithm in a product has an inefficient worst-case computational complexity that may be detrimental to system performance and can be triggered by an attacker, typ...

Inefficient CPU Computation

The program performs CPU computations using algorithms that are not as efficient as they could be for the needs of the developer, i.e., the computati...

Inefficient Regular Expression Complexity

The product uses a regular expression with an inefficient, possibly exponential worst-case computational complexity that consumes excessive CPU cycles.

Information Loss or Omission

The software does not record, or improperly records, security-relevant information that leads to an incorrect decision or hampers later analysis.

Insecure Default Variable Initialization

The software, by default, initializes an internal variable with an insecure or less secure value than is possible.

Insecure Inherited Permissions

A product defines a set of insecure permissions that are inherited by objects that are created by the program.

Insecure Security Identifier Mechanism

The System-on-Chip (SoC) implements a Security Identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entit...

Insecure Storage of Sensitive Information

The software stores sensitive information without properly limiting read or write access by unauthorized actors.

Insecure Temporary File

Creating and using insecure temporary files can leave application and system data vulnerable to attack.

Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Debugging Code

The application inserts sensitive information into debugging code, which could expose this information if the debugging code is not disabled in production.

Insertion of Sensitive Information into Externally-Accessible File or Directory

The product places sensitive information into files or directories that are accessible to actors who are allowed to have access to the files, but not to the sensitive ...

Insertion of Sensitive Information into Log File

Information written to log files can be of a sensitive nature and give valuable guidance to an attacker or expose sensitive user information.

Insertion of Sensitive Information Into Sent Data

The code transmits data to another actor, but a portion of the data includes sensitive information that should not be accessible to that actor.

Insufficient Compartmentalization

The product does not sufficiently compartmentalize functionality or processes that require different privilege levels, rights, or permissions.

Insufficient Control Flow Management

The code does not sufficiently manage its control flow during execution, creating conditions in which the control flow can be modified in unexpected ways.

Insufficient Control of Network Message Volume (Network Amplification)

The software does not sufficiently monitor or control transmitted network traffic volume, so that an actor can cause the software to transmit more traffic than should ...

Insufficient Entropy

The software uses an algorithm or scheme that produces insufficient entropy, leaving patterns or clusters of values that are more likely to occur than others.

Insufficient Entropy in PRNG

The lack of entropy available for, or used by, a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) can be a stability and security threat.

Insufficient Granularity of Access Control

The product implements access controls via a policy or other feature with the intention to disable or restrict accesses (reads and/or writes) to assets in a system fro...

Insufficient or Incomplete Data Removal within Hardware Component

The product's data removal process does not completely delete all data and potentially sensitive information within hardware components.

Insufficient Precision or Accuracy of a Real Number

The program processes a real number with an implementation in which the number’s representation does not preserve required accuracy and precision in its fractional par...

Insufficient Protection Against Instruction Skipping Via Fault Injection

The device is missing or incorrectly implements circuitry or sensors to detect and mitigate CPU instruction skips that can be caused by...

Insufficient Psychological Acceptability

The software has a protection mechanism that is too difficult or inconvenient to use, encouraging non-malicious users to disable or bypass the mechanism, whether by ac...

Insufficient Resource Pool

The software's resource pool is not large enough to handle peak demand, which allows an attacker to prevent others from accessing the resource by using a (relatively) ...

Insufficient Session Expiration

According to WASC, "Insufficient Session Expiration is when a web site permits an attacker to reuse old session credentials or session IDs for authorization."

Insufficient Type Distinction

The software does not properly distinguish between different types of elements in a way that leads to insecure behavior.

Insufficient UI Warning of Dangerous Operations

The user interface provides a warning to a user regarding dangerous or sensitive operations, but the warning is not noticeable enough to warrant attention.

Insufficient Verification of Data Authenticity

The software does not sufficiently verify the origin or authenticity of data, in a way that causes it to accept invalid data.

Insufficient Visual Distinction of Homoglyphs Presented to User

The software displays information or identifiers to a user, but the display mechanism does not make it easy for the user to distinguish between visually similar or ide...

Insufficiently Protected Credentials

The product transmits or stores authentication credentials, but it uses an insecure method that is susceptible to unauthorized interception and/or retrieval.

Integer Coercion Error

Integer coercion refers to a set of flaws pertaining to the type casting, extension, or truncation of primitive data types.

Integer Overflow or Wraparound

The software performs a calculation that can produce an integer overflow or wraparound, when the logic assumes that the resulting value will always be larger than the ...

Integer Underflow (Wrap or Wraparound)

The product subtracts one value from another, such that the result is less than the minimum allowable integer value, which produces a value that is not equal to the co...

Interpretation Conflict

Product A handles inputs or steps differently than Product B, which causes A to perform incorrect actions based on its perception of B's state.

Invocation of Process Using Visible Sensitive Information

A process is invoked with sensitive command-line arguments, environment variables, or other elements that can be seen by other processes on the operating system.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Management of Connections

The J2EE application directly manages connections, instead of using the container's connection management facilities.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Sockets

The J2EE application directly uses sockets instead of using framework method calls.

J2EE Bad Practices: Direct Use of Threads

Thread management in a Web application is forbidden in some circumstances and is always highly error prone.

J2EE Bad Practices: Non-serializable Object Stored in Session

The application stores a non-serializable object as an HttpSession attribute, which can hurt reliability.

J2EE Bad Practices: Use of System.exit()

A J2EE application uses System.exit(), which also shuts down its container.

J2EE Framework: Saving Unserializable Objects to Disk

When the J2EE container attempts to write unserializable objects to disk there is no guarantee that the process will complete successfully.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Data Transmission Without Encryption

Information sent over a network can be compromised while in transit. An attacker may be able to read or modify the contents if the data are sent in plaintext or are we...

J2EE Misconfiguration: Entity Bean Declared Remote

When an application exposes a remote interface for an entity bean, it might also expose methods that get or set the bean's data. These methods could be leveraged to re...

J2EE Misconfiguration: Insufficient Session-ID Length

The J2EE application is configured to use an insufficient session ID length.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Missing Custom Error Page

The default error page of a web application should not display sensitive information about the software system.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Plaintext Password in Configuration File

The J2EE application stores a plaintext password in a configuration file.

J2EE Misconfiguration: Weak Access Permissions for EJB Methods

If elevated access rights are assigned to EJB methods, then an attacker can take advantage of the permissions to exploit the software system.

Java Runtime Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

In many cases, an attacker can leverage the conditions that cause unhandled exception errors in order to gain unauthorized access to the system.

Lack of Administrator Control over Security

The product uses security features in a way that prevents the product's administrator from tailoring security settings to reflect the environment in which the product ...

Least Privilege Violation

The elevated privilege level required to perform operations such as chroot() should be dropped immediately after the operation is performed.

Logic/Time Bomb

The software contains code that is designed to disrupt the legitimate operation of the software (or its environment) when a certain time passes, or when a certain logi...

Memory Allocation with Excessive Size Value

The product allocates memory based on an untrusted, large size value, but it does not ensure that the size is within expected limits, allowing arbitrary amounts of mem...

Misinterpretation of Input

The software misinterprets an input, whether from an attacker or another product, in a security-relevant fashion.

Mismatched Memory Management Routines

The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but it calls a release function that is not compatible with the function that was originally used t...

Missing Ability to Patch ROM Code

Missing an ability to patch ROM code may leave a System or System-on-Chip (SoC) in a vulnerable state.

Missing Authorization

The software does not perform an authorization check when an actor attempts to access a resource or perform an action.

Missing Check for Certificate Revocation after Initial Check

The software does not check the revocation status of a certificate after its initial revocation check, which can cause the software to perform privileged actions even ...

Missing Critical Step in Authentication

The software implements an authentication technique, but it skips a step that weakens the technique.

Missing Cryptographic Step

The product does not implement a required step in a cryptographic algorithm, resulting in weaker encryption than advertised by the algorithm.

Missing Default Case in Switch Statement

The code does not have a default case in a switch statement, which might lead to complex logical errors and resultant weaknesses.

Missing Handler

A handler is not available or implemented.

Missing Immutable Root of Trust in Hardware

A missing immutable root of trust in the hardware results in the ability to bypass secure boot or execute untrusted or adversarial boot code.

Missing Initialization of a Variable

The software does not initialize critical variables, which causes the execution environment to use unexpected values.

Missing Initialization of Resource

The software does not initialize a critical resource.

Missing Lock Check

A product does not check to see if a lock is present before performing sensitive operations on a resource.

Missing Password Field Masking

The software does not mask passwords during entry, increasing the potential for attackers to observe and capture passwords.

Missing Protection for Mirrored Regions in On-Chip Fabric Firewall

The firewall in an on-chip fabric protects the main addressed region, but it does not protect any mirrored memory or memory-mapped-IO (MMIO) regions.

Missing Protection Mechanism for Alternate Hardware Interface

The lack of protections on alternate paths to access control-protected assets (such as unprotected shadow registers and other external ...

Missing Reference to Active Allocated Resource

The software does not properly maintain a reference to a resource that has been allocated, which prevents the resource from being reclaimed.

Missing Reference to Active File Descriptor or Handle

The software does not properly maintain references to a file descriptor or handle, which prevents that file descriptor/handle from being reclaimed.

Missing Release of File Descriptor or Handle after Effective Lifetime

The software does not release a file descriptor or handle after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the file descriptor/handle is no longer needed.

Missing Release of Memory after Effective Lifetime

The software does not sufficiently track and release allocated memory after it has been used, which slowly consumes remaining memory.

Missing Release of Resource after Effective Lifetime

The software does not release a resource after its effective lifetime has ended, i.e., after the resource is no longer needed.

Missing Report of Error Condition

The software encounters an error but does not provide a status code or return value to indicate that an error has occurred.

Missing Security Checks in Fabric Bridge

A bridge that is connected to a fabric without security features forwards transactions to the slave without checking the privilege level of the master. Similarly, it ...

Missing Security Identifier

The product implements a security identifier mechanism to differentiate what actions are allowed or disallowed when a transaction originates from an entity. A transact...

Missing Source Correlation of Multiple Independent Data

The software relies on one source of data, preventing the ability to detect if an adversary has compromised a data source.

Missing Support for Integrity Check

The software uses a transmission protocol that does not include a mechanism for verifying the integrity of the data during transmission, such as a checksum.

Missing Support for Security Features in On-chip Fabrics or Buses

On-chip fabrics or buses either do not support or are not configured to support privilege separation or other security features, such as access control.

Missing Validation of OpenSSL Certificate

The software uses OpenSSL and trusts or uses a certificate without using the SSL_get_verify_result() function to ensure that the certificate satisfies all necessary se...

Missing Write Protection for Parametric Data Values

The device does not write-protect the parametric data values for sensors that scale the sensor value, allowing untrusted software to manipulate the apparent result and...

Missing XML Validation

The software accepts XML from an untrusted source but does not validate the XML against the proper schema.

Modification of Assumed-Immutable Data (MAID)

The software does not properly protect an assumed-immutable element from being modified by an attacker.

Multiple Binds to the Same Port

When multiple sockets are allowed to bind to the same port, other services on that port may be stolen or spoofed.

Multiple Interpretations of UI Input

The UI has multiple interpretations of user input but does not prompt the user when it selects the less secure interpretation.

Multiple Locks of a Critical Resource

The software locks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.

Multiple Unlocks of a Critical Resource

The software unlocks a critical resource more times than intended, leading to an unexpected state in the system.

Mutable Attestation or Measurement Reporting Data

The register contents used for attestation or measurement reporting data to verify boot flow are modifiable by an adversary.

.NET Misconfiguration: Use of Impersonation

Allowing a .NET application to run at potentially escalated levels of access to the underlying operating and file systems can be dangerous and result in various forms ...

Non-exit on Failed Initialization

The software does not exit or otherwise modify its operation when security-relevant errors occur during initialization, such as when a configuration file has a format ...

Non-Replicating Malicious Code

Non-replicating malicious code only resides on the target system or software that is attacked; it does not attempt to spread to other systems.

Non-Transparent Sharing of Microarchitectural Resources

Hardware structures shared across execution contexts (e.g., caches and branch predictors) can violate the expected architecture isolation between contexts.

Not Failing Securely ('Failing Open')

When the product encounters an error condition or failure, its design requires it to fall back to a state that is less secure than other options that are available, su...

Not Using Complete Mediation

The software does not perform access checks on a resource every time the resource is accessed by an entity, which can create resultant weaknesses if that entity's righ...

Null Byte Interaction Error (Poison Null Byte)

The product does not properly handle null bytes or NUL characters when passing data between different representations or components.

NULL Pointer Dereference

A NULL pointer dereference occurs when the application dereferences a pointer that it expects to be valid, but is NULL, typically causing a crash or exit.

Numeric Truncation Error

Truncation errors occur when a primitive is cast to a primitive of a smaller size and data is lost in the conversion.

Object Model Violation: Just One of Equals and Hashcode Defined

The software does not maintain equal hashcodes for equal objects.

Obscured Security-relevant Information by Alternate Name

The software records security-relevant information according to an alternate name of the affected entity, instead of the canonical name.

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy

The product's behaviors indicate important differences that may be observed by unauthorized actors in a way that reveals (1) its internal state or decision process, or...

Observable Behavioral Discrepancy With Equivalent Products

The product operates in an environment in which its existence or specific identity should not be known, but it behaves differently than other products with equivalent ...

Observable Discrepancy

The product behaves differently or sends different responses under different circumstances in a way that is observable to an unauthorized actor, which exposes security...

Observable Internal Behavioral Discrepancy

The product performs multiple behaviors that are combined to produce a single result, but the individual behaviors are observable separately in a way that allows attac...

Observable Response Discrepancy

The product provides different responses to incoming requests in a way that reveals internal state information to an unauthorized actor outside of the intended control...

Observable Timing Discrepancy

Two separate operations in a product require different amounts of time to complete, in a way that is observable to an actor and reveals security-relevant information a...

Obsolete Feature in UI

A UI function is obsolete and the product does not warn the user.

Off-by-one Error

A product calculates or uses an incorrect maximum or minimum value that is 1 more, or 1 less, than the correct value.

Omission of Security-relevant Information

The application does not record or display information that would be important for identifying the source or nature of an attack, or determining if an action is safe.

Omitted Break Statement in Switch

The program omits a break statement within a switch or similar construct, causing code associated with multiple conditions to execute. This can cause problems when the...

Only Filtering One Instance of a Special Element

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only filters a single instance of a special element before sending it to a downstream component.

Only Filtering Special Elements at a Specified Location

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at a specified location, thereby missing remaining special elements that ...

Only Filtering Special Elements at an Absolute Position

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements at an absolute position (e.g. "byte number 10"), thereby missing remainin...

Only Filtering Special Elements Relative to a Marker

The software receives data from an upstream component, but only accounts for special elements positioned relative to a marker (e.g. "at the beginning/end of a string; ...

Operation on a Resource after Expiration or Release

The software uses, accesses, or otherwise operates on a resource after that resource has been expired, released, or revoked.

Operation on Resource in Wrong Phase of Lifetime

The software performs an operation on a resource at the wrong phase of the resource's lifecycle, which can lead to unexpected behaviors.

Operator Precedence Logic Error

The program uses an expression in which operator precedence causes incorrect logic to be used.

Origin Validation Error

The software does not properly verify that the source of data or communication is valid.

Out-of-bounds Read

The software reads data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.

Out-of-bounds Write

The software writes data past the end, or before the beginning, of the intended buffer.

Overly Restrictive Regular Expression

A regular expression is overly restrictive, which prevents dangerous values from being detected.

Partial String Comparison

The software performs a comparison that only examines a portion of a factor before determining whether there is a match, such as a substring, leading to resultant weak...

Passing Mutable Objects to an Untrusted Method

The program sends non-cloned mutable data as an argument to a method or function.

Password in Configuration File

The software stores a password in a configuration file that might be accessible to actors who do not know the password.

Path Equivalence: ' filename' (Leading Space)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of leading space (' filedir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an a...

Path Equivalence: '/./' (Single Dot Directory)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of single dot directory exploit ('/./') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and ...

Path Equivalence: '//multiple/leading/slash'

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple leading slash ('//multiple/leading/slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path ...

Path Equivalence: '/multiple//internal/slash'

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal slash ('/multiple//internal/slash/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous pa...

Path Equivalence: '/multiple/trailing/slash//'

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing slash ('/multiple/trailing/slash//') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous pa...

Path Equivalence: '\multiple\\internal\backslash'

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal backslash ('\multiple\trailing\\slash') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous...

Path Equivalence: 'fakedir/../realdir/filename'

The software contains protection mechanisms to restrict access to 'realdir/filename', but it constructs pathnames using external input in the form of 'fakedir/../reald...

Path Equivalence: 'file name' (Internal Whitespace)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal space ('file(SPACE)name') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and al...

Path Equivalence: 'file...name' (Multiple Internal Dot)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple internal dot ('file...dir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and ...

Path Equivalence: 'file.name' (Internal Dot)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of internal dot ('file.ordir') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an ...

Path Equivalence: 'filedir*' (Wildcard)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of asterisk wildcard ('filedir*') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow ...

Path Equivalence: 'filedir\' (Trailing Backslash)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing backslash ('filedir\') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow...

Path Equivalence: 'filename ' (Trailing Space)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing space ('filedir ') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an ...

Path Equivalence: 'filename.' (Trailing Dot)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing dot ('filedir.') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an at...

Path Equivalence: 'filename....' (Multiple Trailing Dot)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of multiple trailing dot ('filedir....') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and...

Path Equivalence: 'filename/' (Trailing Slash)

A software system that accepts path input in the form of trailing slash ('filedir/') without appropriate validation can lead to ambiguous path resolution and allow an ...

Path Equivalence: Windows 8.3 Filename

The software contains a protection mechanism that restricts access to a long filename on a Windows operating system, but the software does not properly restrict access...

Path Traversal: '...' (Triple Dot)

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '...' (triple dot) sequences...

Path Traversal: '....' (Multiple Dot)

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....' (multiple dot) sequen...

Path Traversal: '....//'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '....//' (doubled dot dot sl...

Path Traversal: '.../...//'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '.../...//' (doubled triple ...

Path Traversal: '../filedir'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "../" sequences that can res...

Path Traversal: '..\filedir'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "..\" sequences that can res...

Path Traversal: '/../filedir'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/../" sequences that can re...

Path Traversal: '/absolute/pathname/here'

A software system that accepts input in the form of a slash absolute path ('/absolute/pathname/here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to traverse ...

Path Traversal: '/dir/../filename'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize "/dir/../filename" sequences...

Path Traversal: '\..\filename'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\..\filename' (leading back...

Path Traversal: '\\UNC\share\name\' (Windows UNC Share)

An attacker can inject a Windows UNC share ('\\UNC\share\name') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitrary file.

Path Traversal: '\absolute\pathname\here'

A software system that accepts input in the form of a backslash absolute path ('\absolute\pathname\here') without appropriate validation can allow an attacker to trave...

Path Traversal: '\dir\..\filename'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize '\dir\..\filename' (leading ...

Path Traversal: 'C:dirname'

An attacker can inject a drive letter or Windows volume letter ('C:dirname') into a software system to potentially redirect access to an unintended location or arbitra...

Path Traversal: 'dir/../../filename'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize multiple internal "../" sequ...

Path Traversal: 'dir\..\..\filename'

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize 'dir\..\..\filename' (multip...

Permission Race Condition During Resource Copy

The product, while copying or cloning a resource, does not set the resource's permissions or access control until the copy is complete, leaving the resource exposed to...

Permissive Cross-domain Policy with Untrusted Domains

The software uses a cross-domain policy file that includes domains that should not be trusted.

Permissive List of Allowed Inputs

The product implements a protection mechanism that relies on a list of inputs (or properties of inputs) that are explicitly allowed by policy because the inputs are as...

Permissive Regular Expression

The product uses a regular expression that does not sufficiently restrict the set of allowed values.

PHP External Variable Modification

A PHP application does not properly protect against the modification of variables from external sources, such as query parameters or cookies. This can expose the appli...

Placement of User into Incorrect Group

The software or the administrator places a user into an incorrect group.

Policy Privileges are not Assigned Consistently Between Control and Data Agents

The product's hardware-enforced access control for a particular resource improperly accounts for privilege discrepancies between control and write policies.

Policy Uses Obsolete Encoding

The product uses an obsolete encoding mechanism to implement access controls.

Predictable Exact Value from Previous Values

An exact value or random number can be precisely predicted by observing previous values.

Predictable from Observable State

A number or object is predictable based on observations that the attacker can make about the state of the system or network, such as time, process ID, etc.

Predictable Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) is initialized from a predictable seed, such as the process ID or system time.

Predictable Value Range from Previous Values

The software's random number generator produces a series of values which, when observed, can be used to infer a relatively small range of possibilities for the next va...

Private Data Structure Returned From A Public Method

The product has a method that is declared public, but returns a reference to a private data structure, which could then be modified in unexpected ways.

Privilege Chaining

Two distinct privileges, roles, capabilities, or rights can be combined in a way that allows an entity to perform unsafe actions that would not be allowed without that...

Privilege Context Switching Error

The software does not properly manage privileges while it is switching between different contexts that have different privileges or spheres of control.

Privilege Defined With Unsafe Actions

A particular privilege, role, capability, or right can be used to perform unsafe actions that were not intended, even when it is assigned to the correct entity.

Privilege Dropping / Lowering Errors

The software does not drop privileges before passing control of a resource to an actor that does not have those privileges.

Process Control

Executing commands or loading libraries from an untrusted source or in an untrusted environment can cause an application to execute malicious commands (and payloads) o...

Product Released in Non-Release Configuration

The product released to market is released in pre-production or manufacturing configuration.

Product UI does not Warn User of Unsafe Actions

The software's user interface does not warn the user before undertaking an unsafe action on behalf of that user. This makes it easier for attackers to trick users into...

Protection Mechanism Failure

The product does not use or incorrectly uses a protection mechanism that provides sufficient defense against directed attacks against the product.

Public cloneable() Method Without Final ('Object Hijack')

A class has a cloneable() method that is not declared final, which allows an object to be created without calling the constructor. This can cause the object to be in a...

Public Data Assigned to Private Array-Typed Field

Assigning public data to a private array is equivalent to giving public access to the array.

Public Key Re-Use for Signing both Debug and Production Code

The same public key is used for signing both debug and production code.

Public Static Field Not Marked Final

An object contains a public static field that is not marked final, which might allow it to be modified in unexpected ways.

Public Static Final Field References Mutable Object

A public or protected static final field references a mutable object, which allows the object to be changed by malicious code, or accidentally from another package.

Race Condition Enabling Link Following

The software checks the status of a file or directory before accessing it, which produces a race condition in which the file can be replaced with a link before the acc...

Race Condition in Switch

The code contains a switch statement in which the switched variable can be modified while the switch is still executing, resulting in unexpected behavior.

Race Condition within a Thread

If two threads of execution use a resource simultaneously, there exists the possibility that resources may be used while invalid, in turn making the state of execution...

Reachable Assertion

The product contains an assert() or similar statement that can be triggered by an attacker, which leads to an application exit or other behavior that is more severe th...

Register Interface Allows Software Access to Sensitive Data or Security Settings

Memory-mapped registers provide access to hardware functionality from software and if not properly secured can result in loss of confidentiality and integrity.

Regular Expression without Anchors

The software uses a regular expression to perform neutralization, but the regular expression is not anchored and may allow malicious or malformed data to slip through.

Relative Path Traversal

The software uses external input to construct a pathname that should be within a restricted directory, but it does not properly neutralize sequences such as ".." that ...

Release of Invalid Pointer or Reference

The application attempts to return a memory resource to the system, but calls the wrong release function or calls the appropriate release function incorrectly.

Reliance on a Single Factor in a Security Decision

A protection mechanism relies exclusively, or to a large extent, on the evaluation of a single condition or the integrity of a single object or entity in order to make...

Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking

The application relies on the existence or values of cookies when performing security-critical operations, but it does not properly ensure that the setting is valid fo...

Reliance on Cookies without Validation and Integrity Checking in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of a cookie, but it does not properly ensure that the cookie is valid for the associ...

Reliance on Data/Memory Layout

The software makes invalid assumptions about how protocol data or memory is organized at a lower level, resulting in unintended program behavior.

Reliance on File Name or Extension of Externally-Supplied File

The software allows a file to be uploaded, but it relies on the file name or extension of the file to determine the appropriate behaviors. This could be used by attack...

Reliance on Obfuscation or Encryption of Security-Relevant Inputs without Integrity Checking

The software uses obfuscation or encryption of inputs that should not be mutable by an external actor, but the software does not use integrity checks to detect if thos...

Reliance on Package-level Scope

Java packages are not inherently closed; therefore, relying on them for code security is not a good practice.

Reliance on Security Through Obscurity

The software uses a protection mechanism whose strength depends heavily on its obscurity, such that knowledge of its algorithms or key data is sufficient to defeat the...

Reliance on Untrusted Inputs in a Security Decision

The application uses a protection mechanism that relies on the existence or values of an input, but the input can be modified by an untrusted actor in a way that bypas...

Remanent Data Readable after Memory Erase

Confidential information stored in memory circuits is readable or recoverable after being cleared or erased.

Replicating Malicious Code (Virus or Worm)

Replicating malicious code, including viruses and worms, will attempt to attack other systems once it has successfully compromised the target system or software.

Return Inside Finally Block

The code has a return statement inside a finally block, which will cause any thrown exception in the try block to be discarded.

Return of Pointer Value Outside of Expected Range

A function can return a pointer to memory that is outside of the buffer that the pointer is expected to reference.

Return of Stack Variable Address

A function returns the address of a stack variable, which will cause unintended program behavior, typically in the form of a crash.

Return of Wrong Status Code

A function or operation returns an incorrect return value or status code that does not indicate an error, but causes the product to modify its behavior based on the in...

Returning a Mutable Object to an Untrusted Caller

Sending non-cloned mutable data as a return value may result in that data being altered or deleted by the calling function.

Same Seed in Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses the same seed each time the product is initialized.

Security Version Number Mutable to Older Versions

Security-version number in hardware is mutable, resulting in the ability to downgrade (roll-back) the boot firmware to vulnerable code versions.

Self-generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

The software identifies an error condition and creates its own diagnostic or error messages that contain sensitive information.

Sensitive Cookie in HTTPS Session Without 'Secure' Attribute

The Secure attribute for sensitive cookies in HTTPS sessions is not set, which could cause the user agent to send those cookies in plaintext over an HTTP session.

Sensitive Cookie with Improper SameSite Attribute

The SameSite attribute for sensitive cookies is not set, or an insecure value is used.

Sensitive Cookie Without 'HttpOnly' Flag

The software uses a cookie to store sensitive information, but the cookie is not marked with the HttpOnly flag.

Sensitive Data Storage in Improperly Locked Memory

The application stores sensitive data in memory that is not locked, or that has been incorrectly locked, which might cause the memory to be written to swap files on di...

Sensitive Information Accessible by Physical Probing of JTAG Interface

Sensitive information in clear text on the JTAG interface may be examined by an eavesdropper, e.g. by placing a probe device on the int...

Sensitive Information in Resource Not Removed Before Reuse

When a device releases a resource such as memory or a file for reuse by other entities, information contained in the resource is not fully cleared prior to reuse of th...

Sensitive Non-Volatile Information Not Protected During Debug

Access to security-sensitive information stored in fuses is not limited during debug.

Sequence of Processor Instructions Leads to Unexpected Behavior

Specific combinations of processor instructions lead to undesirable behavior such as locking the processor until a hard reset performed.

Serializable Class Containing Sensitive Data

The code contains a class with sensitive data, but the class does not explicitly deny serialization. The data can be accessed by serializing the class through another ...

Server-generated Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

Certain conditions, such as network failure, will cause a server error message to be displayed.

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)

The web server receives a URL or similar request from an upstream component and retrieves the contents of this URL, but it does not sufficiently ensure that the reques...

Servlet Runtime Error Message Containing Sensitive Information

A servlet error message indicates that there exists an unhandled exception in your web application code and may provide useful information to an attacker.

Session Fixation

Authenticating a user, or otherwise establishing a new user session, without invalidating any existing session identifier gives an attacker the opportunity to steal au...

Signal Handler Race Condition

The software uses a signal handler that introduces a race condition.

Signal Handler Use of a Non-reentrant Function

The program defines a signal handler that calls a non-reentrant function.

Signed to Unsigned Conversion Error

The software uses a signed primitive and performs a cast to an unsigned primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the signed primitive can not b...

Small Seed Space in PRNG

A Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) uses a relatively small seed space, which makes it more susceptible to brute force attacks.

Small Space of Random Values

The number of possible random values is smaller than needed by the product, making it more susceptible to brute force attacks.

Spyware

The software collects personally identifiable information about a human user or the user's activities, but the software accesses this information using other resources...

SQL Injection: Hibernate

Using Hibernate to execute a dynamic SQL statement built with user-controlled input can allow an attacker to modify the statement's meaning or to execute arbitrary SQL...

Stack-based Buffer Overflow

A stack-based buffer overflow condition is a condition where the buffer being overwritten is allocated on the stack (i.e., is a local variable or, rarely, a parameter ...

Storage of File with Sensitive Data Under Web Root

The application stores sensitive data under the web document root with insufficient access control, which might make it accessible to untrusted parties.

Struts: Duplicate Validation Forms

The application uses multiple validation forms with the same name, which might cause the Struts Validator to validate a form that the programmer does not expect.

Struts: Form Bean Does Not Extend Validation Class

If a form bean does not extend an ActionForm subclass of the Validator framework, it can expose the application to other weaknesses related to insufficient input valid...

Struts: Form Field Without Validator

The application has a form field that is not validated by a corresponding validation form, which can introduce other weaknesses related to insufficient input validation.

Struts: Incomplete validate() Method Definition

The application has a validator form that either does not define a validate() method, or defines a validate() method but does not call super.validate().

Struts: Non-private Field in ActionForm Class

An ActionForm class contains a field that has not been declared private, which can be accessed without using a setter or getter.

Struts: Plug-in Framework not in Use

When an application does not use an input validation framework such as the Struts Validator, there is a greater risk of introducing weaknesses related to insufficient ...

Struts: Unused Validation Form

An unused validation form indicates that validation logic is not up-to-date.

Struts: Unvalidated Action Form

Every Action Form must have a corresponding validation form.

Struts: Validator Turned Off

Automatic filtering via a Struts bean has been turned off, which disables the Struts Validator and custom validation logic. This exposes the application to other weakn...

Struts: Validator Without Form Field

Validation fields that do not appear in forms they are associated with indicate that the validation logic is out of date.

Suspicious Comment

The code contains comments that suggest the presence of bugs, incomplete functionality, or weaknesses.

Symbolic Name not Mapping to Correct Object

A constant symbolic reference to an object is used, even though the reference can resolve to a different object over time.

System-on-Chip (SoC) Using Components without Unique, Immutable Identifiers

The System-on-Chip (SoC) does not have unique, immutable identifiers for each of its components.

The UI Performs the Wrong Action

The UI performs the wrong action with respect to the user's request.

Time-of-check Time-of-use (TOCTOU) Race Condition

The software checks the state of a resource before using that resource, but the resource's state can change between the check and the use in a way that invalidates the...

Transmission of Private Resources into a New Sphere ('Resource Leak')

The software makes resources available to untrusted parties when those resources are only intended to be accessed by the software.

Trapdoor

A trapdoor is a hidden piece of code that responds to a special input, allowing its user access to resources without passing through the normal security enforcement me...

Trojan Horse

The software appears to contain benign or useful functionality, but it also contains code that is hidden from normal operation that violates the intended security poli...

Truncation of Security-relevant Information

The application truncates the display, recording, or processing of security-relevant information in a way that can obscure the source or nature of an attack.

Trust of System Event Data

Security based on event locations are insecure and can be spoofed.

Trusting HTTP Permission Methods on the Server Side

The server contains a protection mechanism that assumes that any URI that is accessed using HTTP GET will not cause a state change to the associated resource. This mig...

UI Discrepancy for Security Feature

The user interface does not correctly enable or configure a security feature, but the interface provides feedback that causes the user to believe that the feature is i...

Unauthorized Error Injection Can Degrade Hardware Redundancy

An unauthorized agent can inject errors into a redundant block to deprive the system of redundancy or put the system in a degraded operating mode.

Uncaught Exception

An exception is thrown from a function, but it is not caught.

Uncaught Exception in Servlet

The Servlet does not catch all exceptions, which may reveal sensitive debugging information.

Unchecked Error Condition

[PLANNED FOR DEPRECATION. SEE MAINTENANCE NOTES AND CONSIDER CWE-252, CWE-248, OR CWE-1069.] Ignoring exceptions and other error conditions may allow an attacker to in...

Unchecked Input for Loop Condition

The product does not properly check inputs that are used for loop conditions, potentially leading to a denial of service or other consequences because of excessive loo...

Unchecked Return Value

The software does not check the return value from a method or function, which can prevent it from detecting unexpected states and conditions.

Unchecked Return Value to NULL Pointer Dereference

The product does not check for an error after calling a function that can return with a NULL pointer if the function fails, which leads to a resultant NULL pointer der...

Uncontrolled Recursion

The product does not properly control the amount of recursion which takes place, consuming excessive resources, such as allocated memory or the program stack.

Uncontrolled Resource Consumption

The software does not properly control the allocation and maintenance of a limited resource, thereby enabling an actor to influence the amount of resources consumed, e...

Uncontrolled Search Path Element

The product uses a fixed or controlled search path to find resources, but one or more locations in that path can be under the control of unintended actors.

Undefined Behavior for Input to API

The behavior of this function is undefined unless its control parameter is set to a specific value.

Unexpected Sign Extension

The software performs an operation on a number that causes it to be sign extended when it is transformed into a larger data type. When the original number is negative,...

Unexpected Status Code or Return Value

The software does not properly check when a function or operation returns a value that is legitimate for the function, but is not expected by the software.

Unimplemented or Unsupported Feature in UI

A UI function for a security feature appears to be supported and gives feedback to the user that suggests that it is supported, but the underlying functionality is not...

Uninitialized Value on Reset for Registers Holding Security Settings

Security-critical logic is not set to a known value on reset.

UNIX Hard Link

The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the inten...

UNIX Symbolic Link (Symlink) Following

The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently account for when the file is a symbolic link that resolves to a target outside of the intended co...

Unnecessary Complexity in Protection Mechanism (Not Using 'Economy of Mechanism')

The software uses a more complex mechanism than necessary, which could lead to resultant weaknesses when the mechanism is not correctly understood, modeled, configured...

Unparsed Raw Web Content Delivery

The software stores raw content or supporting code under the web document root with an extension that is not specifically handled by the server.

Unprotected Alternate Channel

The software protects a primary channel, but it does not use the same level of protection for an alternate channel.

Unprotected Confidential Information on Device is Accessible by OSAT Vendors

The product does not adequately protect confidential information on the device from being accessed by Outsourced Semiconductor Assembly and Test (OSAT) vendors.

Unprotected Primary Channel

The software uses a primary channel for administration or restricted functionality, but it does not properly protect the channel.

Unquoted Search Path or Element

The product uses a search path that contains an unquoted element, in which the element contains whitespace or other separators. This can cause the product to access re...

Unrestricted Externally Accessible Lock

The software properly checks for the existence of a lock, but the lock can be externally controlled or influenced by an actor that is outside of the intended sphere of...

Unrestricted Upload of File with Dangerous Type

The software allows the attacker to upload or transfer files of dangerous types that can be automatically processed within the product's environment.

Unsafe ActiveX Control Marked Safe For Scripting

An ActiveX control is intended for restricted use, but it has been marked as safe-for-scripting.

Unsigned to Signed Conversion Error

The software uses an unsigned primitive and performs a cast to a signed primitive, which can produce an unexpected value if the value of the unsigned primitive can not...

Unsynchronized Access to Shared Data in a Multithreaded Context

The product does not properly synchronize shared data, such as static variables across threads, which can lead to undefined behavior and unpredictable data changes.

Untrusted Search Path

The application searches for critical resources using an externally-supplied search path that can point to resources that are not under the application's direct control.

Unverified Password Change

When setting a new password for a user, the product does not require knowledge of the original password, or using another form of authentication.

URL Redirection to Untrusted Site ('Open Redirect')

A web application accepts a user-controlled input that specifies a link to an external site, and uses that link in a Redirect. This simplifies phishing attacks.

Use After Free

Referencing memory after it has been freed can cause a program to crash, use unexpected values, or execute code.

Use of a Non-reentrant Function in a Concurrent Context

The software calls a non-reentrant function in a concurrent context in which a competing code sequence (e.g. thread or signal handler) may have an opportunity to call ...

Use of a One-Way Hash with a Predictable Salt

The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software uses a predictable salt as part of ...

Use of a One-Way Hash without a Salt

The software uses a one-way cryptographic hash against an input that should not be reversible, such as a password, but the software does not also use a salt as part of...

Use of a Risky Cryptographic Primitive

This device implements a cryptographic algorithm using a non-standard or unproven cryptographic primitive.

Use of Blocking Code in Single-threaded, Non-blocking Context

The product uses a non-blocking model that relies on a single threaded process for features such as scalability, but it contains code that can block when it is invo...

Use of Cache Containing Sensitive Information

The code uses a cache that contains sensitive information, but the cache can be read by an actor outside of the intended control sphere.

Use of Client-Side Authentication

A client/server product performs authentication within client code but not in server code, allowing server-side authentication to be bypassed via a modified client tha...

Use of Cryptographically Weak Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG)

The product uses a Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) in a security context, but the PRNG's algorithm is not cryptographically strong.

Use of Expired File Descriptor

The software uses or accesses a file descriptor after it has been closed.

Use of Externally-Controlled Format String

The software uses a function that accepts a format string as an argument, but the format string originates from an external source.

Use of Externally-Controlled Input to Select Classes or Code ('Unsafe Reflection')

The application uses external input with reflection to select which classes or code to use, but it does not sufficiently prevent the input from selecting improper clas...

Use of Function with Inconsistent Implementations

The code uses a function that has inconsistent implementations across operating systems and versions.

Use of GET Request Method With Sensitive Query Strings

The web application uses the HTTP GET method to process a request and includes sensitive information in the query string of that request.

Use of getlogin() in Multithreaded Application

The application uses the getlogin() function in a multithreaded context, potentially causing it to return incorrect values.

Use of Hard-coded Password

The software contains a hard-coded password, which it uses for its own inbound authentication or for outbound communication to external components.

Use of Hard-coded, Security-relevant Constants

The program uses hard-coded constants instead of symbolic names for security-critical values, which increases the likelihood of mistakes during code maintenance or sec...

Use of Incorrect Byte Ordering

The software receives input from an upstream component, but it does not account for byte ordering (e.g. big-endian and little-endian) when processing the input, causin...

Use of Incorrect Operator

The programmer accidentally uses the wrong operator, which changes the application logic in security-relevant ways.

Use of Incorrectly-Resolved Name or Reference

The software uses a name or reference to access a resource, but the name/reference resolves to a resource that is outside of the intended control sphere.

Use of Inherently Dangerous Function

The program calls a function that can never be guaranteed to work safely.

Use of Inner Class Containing Sensitive Data

Inner classes are translated into classes that are accessible at package scope and may expose code that the programmer intended to keep private to attackers.

Use of Insufficiently Random Values

The software uses insufficiently random numbers or values in a security context that depends on unpredictable numbers.

Use of Invariant Value in Dynamically Changing Context

The product uses a constant value, name, or reference, but this value can (or should) vary across different environments.

Use of Less Trusted Source

The software has two different sources of the same data or information, but it uses the source that has less support for verification, is less trusted, or is less resi...

Use of Low-Level Functionality

The software uses low-level functionality that is explicitly prohibited by the framework or specification under which the software is supposed to operate.

Use of Multiple Resources with Duplicate Identifier

The software uses multiple resources that can have the same identifier, in a context in which unique identifiers are required.

Use of Non-Canonical URL Paths for Authorization Decisions

The software defines policy namespaces and makes authorization decisions based on the assumption that a URL is canonical. This can allow a non-canonical URL to bypass ...

Use of NullPointerException Catch to Detect NULL Pointer Dereference

Catching NullPointerException should not be used as an alternative to programmatic checks to prevent dereferencing a null pointer.

Use of Obsolete Function

The code uses deprecated or obsolete functions, which suggests that the code has not been actively reviewed or maintained.

Use of Password Hash Instead of Password for Authentication

The software records password hashes in a data store, receives a hash of a password from a client, and compares the supplied hash to the hash obtained from the data st...

Use of Path Manipulation Function without Maximum-sized Buffer

The software invokes a function for normalizing paths or file names, but it provides an output buffer that is smaller than the maximum possible size, such as PATH_MAX.

Use of Persistent Cookies Containing Sensitive Information

The web application uses persistent cookies, but the cookies contain sensitive information.

Use of Pointer Subtraction to Determine Size

The application subtracts one pointer from another in order to determine size, but this calculation can be incorrect if the pointers do not exist in the same memory ch...

Use of Potentially Dangerous Function

The program invokes a potentially dangerous function that could introduce a vulnerability if it is used incorrectly, but the function can also be used safely.

Use of Predictable Algorithm in Random Number Generator

The device uses an algorithm that is predictable and generates a pseudo-random number.

Use of Prohibited Code

The software uses a function, library, or third party component that has been explicitly prohibited, whether by the developer or the customer.

Use of RSA Algorithm without OAEP

The software uses the RSA algorithm but does not incorporate Optimal Asymmetric Encryption Padding (OAEP), which might weaken the encryption.

Use of Singleton Pattern Without Synchronization in a Multithreaded Context

The software uses the singleton pattern when creating a resource within a multithreaded environment.

Use of sizeof() on a Pointer Type

The code calls sizeof() on a malloced pointer type, which always returns the wordsize/8. This can produce an unexpected result if the programmer intended to determine ...

Use of umask() with chmod-style Argument

The product calls umask() with an incorrect argument that is specified as if it is an argument to chmod().

Use of Uninitialized Resource

The software uses or accesses a resource that has not been initialized.

Use of Uninitialized Variable

The code uses a variable that has not been initialized, leading to unpredictable or unintended results.

Use of Web Browser Cache Containing Sensitive Information

The web application does not use an appropriate caching policy that specifies the extent to which each web page and associated form fields should be cached.

Use of Web Link to Untrusted Target with window.opener Access

The web application produces links to untrusted external sites outside of its sphere of control, but it does not properly prevent the external site from modifying sec...

Use of Wrong Operator in String Comparison

The product uses the wrong operator when comparing a string, such as using "==" when the .equals() method should be used instead.

User Interface (UI) Misrepresentation of Critical Information

The user interface (UI) does not properly represent critical information to the user, allowing the information - or its source - to be obscured or spoofed. This is oft...

Variable Extraction Error

The product uses external input to determine the names of variables into which information is extracted, without verifying that the names of the specified variables ar...

Violation of Secure Design Principles

The product violates well-established principles for secure design.

Weak Password Recovery Mechanism for Forgotten Password

The software contains a mechanism for users to recover or change their passwords without knowing the original password, but the mechanism is weak.

Weak Password Requirements

The product does not require that users should have strong passwords, which makes it easier for attackers to compromise user accounts.

Windows Hard Link

The software, when opening a file or directory, does not sufficiently handle when the name is associated with a hard link to a target that is outside of the intended c...

Wrap-around Error

Wrap around errors occur whenever a value is incremented past the maximum value for its type and therefore "wraps around" to a very small, negative, or undefined value.

Write-what-where Condition

Any condition where the attacker has the ability to write an arbitrary value to an arbitrary location, often as the result of a buffer overflow.

XML Injection (aka Blind XPath Injection)

The software does not properly neutralize special elements that are used in XML, allowing attackers to modify the syntax, content, or commands of the XML before it is ...


Common Weakness Enumeration content on this website is copyright of The MITRE Corporation unless otherwise specified. Use of the Common Weakness Enumeration and the associated references on this website are subject to the Terms of Use as specified by The MITRE Corporation.